Recent OCT based investigations in humans and in experimental animals have shown that rods and cones outer segments elongate in response to light stimuli. In this manuscript we describe our efforts to implement phase-based “optoretinograms” (ORG) analysis framework to retinal images acquired with standard raster scanning FD-OCT system, that offers much lower phase stability compared to full field or line field OCT acquisition schemes. Our initial results, acquired in anesthetized mice in vivo, showcase successful extraction of phase-based ORG signal and its favorable comparison with intensity-based ORG signal extracted from the same data sets.
Ocular blood flow measurement may have a number of potential applications that explore the relationship between blood flow in the eye and diseases such as: diabetic retinopathy, ocular artery obstruction, hypertensive retinopathy and Alzheimer's disease. Reliable and quantitative method for retinal blood flow estimation is still to be created. Doppler OCT is one of candidates for such a method, but suffers from a number of limitations. Recently we proposed a solution to one of the most prominent artefacts in Doppler OCT, which is the phase wrapping problem. This allows for precise recovery of velocity profile the Doppler OCT technique remains sensitive to temporal dependence of the result on the blood flow velocity changing with the pulse during the OCT measurement. In this report we explore this problem and show that the synchronization of the OCT measurement with heart beats only partially gives control over the acquired blood flows.
We present a modified Fast Phase Unwrapping (FPU) algorithm and its application for calculation of the axial flow velocity and volumetric flow rate in Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT). We outline the FPU method and show that it can be implemented in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using Fourier transformations (4FT). We present two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) realizations of the algorithm to reconstruct unwrapped phase in numerical simulations, as well as in data collected from phantom. We demonstrate that the phase unwrapping outcomes of the 2D and 3D 4FT FPU algorithms depend on the phase noise in the input data. For low phase noise data both algorithms generate reliable results. With increasing noise, the 2D algorithm starts generating phase unwrapping errors earlier than the 3D version. With the phase noise larger than a limiting value, none of the algorithms provides error-free results. We demonstrate that within their phase noise applicability limits, the phase unwrapping methods enable calculation of volumetric flow rates in the flow phantom even in the presence of phase wraps. We demonstrate that application of phase unwrapping methods enables extension of the measurable flow velocities beyond the phase range limitation of the Doppler OCT data.