Leveraging topological protection in the photonic domain could lead to new ways to transport information on-chip, potentially increasing its robustness to scattering at disorder. We realize a photonic analogue of topological insulators based on the quantum spin Hall effect in symmetry-broken photonic crystals. We directly observe the propagation of topological edge states at telecom wavelengths in a silicon-on-insulator platform. Analyzing their properties through their far-field radiation allows characterizing their inherent spin, dispersion, and propagation. We reveal that the radiation of the topological states carries a signature of their origin in photonic spin-orbit coupling, linking the unidirectional propagation of two states with opposite pseudospin to circular far-field polarization. Polarimetric Fourier spectroscopy allows mapping the edge state dispersion and characterize their quality factors. The positive and negative group velocity modes can be selectively excited with circular polarization of opposite handedness. Moreover, we detect a small gap at the edge state crossing that is related to spin-spin scattering, inherent to the symmetry breaking at the edge, and a defining difference between photonic and electronic topological insulators. We image edge state propagation in real-space microscopy, and show how they can be routed at sharp waveguide junctions, attesting to their topologically protected nature. Thus, we observe the unique nature of topologically protected light transport in photonic crystals, through a technique that holds great promise for developing novel topological systems for various applications, including integrated photonic components, quantum optical interfaces, and nanoscale lasing.
Strong interaction between light and a single quantum emitter is pivotal to many applications, including single photon sources and quantum information processing. Typically, plasmonic antennas or optical cavities are used to boost this interaction. The former can focus light in a deeply subwavelength region, whereas the latter can store light for up to billions of oscillations.
In our work, we combine these two opposite elements into a single coupled system. First, we show theoretically  that hybrid cavity-antenna systems can achieve Purcell enhancements far exceeding those of the bare cavity and antenna, and can do so at any desired bandwidth. This requires a delicate balance between spoiling the cavity with the antenna on the one hand, and cooperative and interference effects on the other.
We then present our experimental results on hybrid systems using a whispering-gallery mode cavity and an aluminum plasmonic antenna. Using taper-coupled excitation of the hybrid mode, we study quality factors and radiation patterns, demonstrating that we can control the antenna-cavity coupling strength by varying their respective frequency detuning. We show that we can achieve modes that retain quality factors around 10^4, while creating a strongly localized field around the antenna. As such, we can exploit the benefits of plasmonic confinement without suffering from the usual losses. Finally, we present first studies of fluorescent emitters coupled to the hybrid modes.
 Doeleman, H. M., Verhagen, E., & Koenderink, A. F., "Antenna–Cavity Hybrids: Matching Polar Opposites for Purcell Enhancements at Any Linewidth." ACS Photonics 3.10 (2016): 1943-1951.
A prototypical experiment in cavity quantum electrodynamics involves controlling the light-matter interaction by tuning the frequency of a cavity mode in- and out-of resonance with the frequency of a quantum emitter,<sup>1-3</sup> while the field amplitude is generally unaltered. The opposite situation, where one perturbs the spatial pattern of a cavity mode without changing its frequency, has been considered only recently in a few works.<sup>4, 5</sup> Changing the amplitude of the field at the emitter's position has important applications, at it allows a real-time control of the light-matter coupling rate, and therefore a direct control of processes such as spontaneous emission and Rabi oscillations. In view of this large potential, in this paper we discuss general design principles that allow obtaining large variations of the electromagnetic field, without change of the frequency, upon an external perturbation of the cavity. We showcase the application of these rules to two photonic structures, a single Fabry-Perot cavity and a coupled three-cavity system. As showed by our analysis and by the examples provided, a small frequency spacing between the modes of the unperturbed cavity is an important requirement to obtain large field variations upon small perturbations. In this regard, a coupled-cavity system, where the frequency spacing is controlled by the interaction rates between the single cavities, constitutes the most promising system to achieve large modulations of the field amplitude.
Hybrid nanophotonic structures are structures that integrate different nanoscale platforms to harness light-matter interaction. We propose that combinations of plasmonic antennas inside modest-Q dielectric cavities can lead to very high Purcell factors, yielding plasmonic mode volumes at essentially cavity quality factors. The underlying physics is subtle: for instance, how plasmon antennas with large cross sections spoil or improve cavities and vice
versa, contains physics beyond perturbation theory, depending on interplays of back-action, and interferences. This is evident from the fact that the local density of states of hybrid systems shows the rich physics of Fano interferences. I will discuss recent scattering experiments performed on toroidal microcavities coupled to plasmon particle arrays that probe both cavity resonance shifts and particle polarizability changes illustrating these insights. Furthermore I will present our efforts to probe single plasmon antennas coupled to emitters and complex environments using scatterometry. An integral part of this approach is the recently developed measurement method of `k-space polarimetry’, a microscopy technique to completely classify the intensity and polarization state of light radiated by a single nano-object into any emission direction that is based on back focal plane imaging and Stokes polarimetry. I show benchmarks of this technique for the cases of scattering, fluorescence, and cathodoluminescence applied to directional surface plasmon polariton antennas.
Nanophotonic structures with narrow optical resonances, such as high-quality factor photonic crystal cavities, in principle enable spectral sensing with high resolution. This can also result in high-sensitivity displacement and/or acceleration sensing if a part of the cavity is compliant. However, the control of the resonance and its optical read-out are complex and usually not integrated with the sensing part. In this talk we will introduce a novel nano-opto-electromechanical system (NOEMS), where actuation, sensing and read-out are integrated in the same device. It consists of a double-membrane photonic crystal cavity, where the resonant wavelength is tuned by electrostatically controlling the separation between the membranes. The output current signal provides direct information about either the wavelength of the incident light or the cavity resonance. This nanophotonic sensing system can be employed to measure the spectrum of incident light, to determine the wavelength of a laser line with pm-range resolution, or equivalently to measure tiny displacements.
Conference Committee Involvement (4)
Quantum Nanophotonic Materials, Devices, and Systems 2020
23 August 2020 | San Diego, California, United States
Quantum Nanophotonic Materials, Devices, and Systems 2019
14 August 2019 | San Diego, California, United States
Quantum Nanophotonics 2018
20 August 2018 | San Diego, California, United States
7 August 2017 | San Diego, California, United States