Planar devices that can be categorised as having a nanophotonic dimension constitute an increasingly important area of
photonics research. Device structures that come under the headings of photonic crystals, photonic wires and
metamaterials are all of interest - and devices based on combinations of these conceptual approaches may also play an
important role. Planar micro-/nano-photonic devices seem likely to be exploited across a wide spectrum of applications
in optoelectronics and photonics. This spectrum includes the domains of display devices, biomedical sensing and sensing
more generally, advanced fibre-optical communications systems - and even communications down to the local area
network (LAN) level. This article will review both device concepts and the applications possibilities of the various
In this paper we discuss theoretical modelling methods for the design of photonic crystal and photonic quasi-crystal
(PQC) LEDs - and apply them to the analysis of the extraction enhancement performance and shaping of the emitted
beam profile of PQC-LED structures. In particular we investigate the effect of the pitch of the PQC patterning, and
consider the physical mechanisms giving rise to performance improvements. In addition, we examine the relative
contributions to performance improvements from effective index reduction effects that alter the conditions for total
internal reflection at the device air interface, and from photonic crystal scattering effects that give rise to radically
improved extraction performance. Comparisons are made with the performance of recently fabricated devices.
Photonic devices that exploit photonic crystal (PhC) principles in a planar environment continue to provide a fertile field of research. 2D PhC based channel waveguides can provide both strong confinement and controlled dispersion behaviour. In conjunction with, for instance, various electro-optic, thermo-optic and other effects, a range of device functionality is accessible in very compact PhC channel-guide devices that offer the potential for high-density integration. Low enough propagation losses are now being obtained with photonic crystal channel-guide structures that their use in real applications has become plausible. Photonic wires (PhWs) can also provide strong confinement and low propagation losses. Bragg-gratings imposed on photonic wires can provide dispersion and frequency selection in device structures that are intrinsically simpler than 2D PhC channel guides--and can compete with them under realistic conditions.