The scarcity and large fluctuations of link bandwidth in wireless networks have motivated the development of adaptive multimedia services in mobile communication networks, where it is possible to increase or decrease the bandwidth of individual ongoing flows. This paper studies the issues of quality of service (QoS) provisioning in such systems. In particular, call admission control and bandwidth adaptation are formulated as a constrained Markov decision problem. The rapid growth in the number of states and the difficulty in estimating state transition probabilities in practical systems make it very difficult to employ classical methods to find the optimal policy. We present a novel approach that uses a form of reinforcement learning known as <i>Q</i>-learning to solve QoS provisioning for wireless adaptive multimedia. <i>Q</i>-learning does not require the explicit state transition model to solve the Markov decision problem; therefore more general and realistic assumptions can be applied to the underlying system model for this approach than in previous schemes. Moreover, the proposed scheme can efficiently handle the large state space and action set of the wireless adaptive multimedia QoS provisioning problem. Handoff dropping probability and average allocated bandwidth are considered as QoS constraints in our model and can be guaranteed simultaneously. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in adaptive multimedia mobile communication networks.