The paper is focused on safety of exploitation of optical transmission devices in free space. The subjects concerning
propagation of "open" optical stream and its' possible dangerous influence on environment, mainly living organisms are
discussed. An attempt to evaluate an installation and exploitation of transmitting devices was made, concerning dangers,
requirements, recommendations and restrictions, concluding from accepted safety standards (IEC 60825- 1 :2005, EN
60825-1 :2005 and in Poland PN-EN 60825-1 :2005 "Safety of laser devices - Equipment classification, requirements and
user's guide"; IEC 60825-12:2004, EN 60825-12:2005 and in Poland PN-EN 60825-12:2005 "Safety of free space
optical communication systems, used in data transmission").
The possibilities of development of logical and pseudo-logical optical fibre networks for monitoring and control of equipment and industrial sites are presented. Such networks composed of simple binary attenuation and optical fibre communication lines may also be used as fast and reliable systems developing a final command signal - logical and/or pseudo-logical, depending or the architecture of network and the type of located sensors. They realise the process similar to standard electronic logical sets but use the optical signal directly on the monitored or controlled device. The analysis of serial and parallel networks was carried out in the "dark" mode detection. The examples of networks in power industry were presented where technical and economical merits of logical and pseudo-logical monitoring and controlling networks are clearly visible.
The paper presents an attempt to unify the construction of two state optical fibre loop sensor and possibility of adapting it to the various traditional constructions and casings of industrial sensors. This enables module structure of sensors based on construction of industrial application (master) and mensurative optical fibre loop (slave). Mensurative properties are determined by traditional (mainly mechanical) measuring system ex. temperature, displacement, and optical properties are determined by characteristics of auxiliary optical system (standardised and unified). Such attitude to a subject is illustrated in this paper by the examples of threshold displacement sensor, temperature, voltage and current.
This paper presents the method of research and measurement of macrobending attenuation, present during alteration of geometrical system of optical fibre loop. Presentation of a measuring device, which allows to unifying measurements in (under) conditions close to those present in industrial constructions of devices. Annexed exemplary research of macrobending loss in systems deforming optical fibre loops made from various types of optical fibres.
This paper presents state and ways of development of plastic optical fibers (POF) for use in transmission-measuring devices for small area object networks (LAN networks in stationary and dynamic objects). Transmission links (with new fiber optics, simple optical components -- optical transmitters/receivers) allows nowadays transmission speed of a few Gb/s for a distance of hundreds meters. Properties and advantages of solutions based on plastic optical fiber for control, communication and managing are shown. Example practical solutions, regarding entering new standards and technologies, presents technical and economical advantages, compared to difficult and unfortunately expensive technology of transmission networks based on glass optical fiber.
The paper is focused on problems of optical radiation, which occurs in systems and devices of optical fiber communications, during their usual exploitation, and in breakage situations. Mainly in aspects of open (possible to disconnect) fiber optic optical system and/or accidental affection of electromagnetic radiation (in visible and infrared spectrum) on human being. Considerations about safeness of using fiber optical systems and devices were examined on the basis of directions and obligatory standards or propositions of changing them as results of newest research.
This paper presents controlling-measuring buses (linear and quasi-linear) using amplitude properties of fiber-optics and fiber-optical sensors of typical and/or special construction. It refers to linear sensors and commonly used measuring OTDR method, as wel as to realizations with linear binary sensors in transmission networks. Presented advantages and parameters of such measuring structures. Presented main area of application buses and practical realizations, regarding typical needs in industrial measurements, points out technical and economical advantages, in opposition to difficult and expensive (but more accurate) technology of measuring networks based on polarization and interfering methods.
In this paper we review issues of evolution of optical networks towards their full optical transparency and present sequence of eliminating non-transparent elements out of optical links (networks). Architectures of optical commutators with electrical and optical cores have been presented, as well as a structure of OMO (optical-millimeter wave-optical) switching fabric. An example of pure al-optical switch, made by Luxcore, utilizing dispersion compensating elements, wavelength converters and and variable optical attenuators (VOA) operating entirely in optical domain without optical-electrical-optical (OEO) conversions, was quoted. We brought up an issue of all-optical 3R signal regeneration for long-haul networks and reviewed two different approaches: a regeneration of a single channel and simultaneous regeneration of four channels without converting WDM signal to basic channels.
In this paper are presented the optical power and irradiance meter with `an intelligent opto sensor' and the microprocessor measurement system. A designed and programmed microprocessor unit allows to measure a light power from 1 nW to 2 mW and an irradiance of light from 50 nW/cm<SUP>2</SUP> to 150 mW/cm<SUP>2</SUP> (with accuracy 0.2%) including sensor's and spectral responsively characteristic. It's built for measuring fiber optic systems, mainly for examination and testing of the optoelectronic sensor's structure (relatively small surface of the light detectors comparing to the partition of measured value) and it's an ideal detector for the fiber optic sensors and networks.
This paper presents general theoretical considerations of complex-structure optical fiber networks (buses) with binary `on-off' fiber optic sensors and fiber optic transmission lines for monitoring, diagnostic or measurement systems. The principles of fiber optic serial and parallel buses and various types of intensity fiber optic binary sensors are described as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the individual types of networks. The choice of the use of fiber optic technology rather than other techniques is discussed. Special emphasis was put on the role and function of optoelectronic and optical fiber devices in harsh environments. Theoretical considerations are illustrated by the examples of protection systems for large structures in chemical, electric power and civil engineering.
Uncomplicated structure and low costs have caused an immense increase in the applications of reflective optical fiber sensors. The growing interest demands more precision and reliability from the sensors. At the same time the development of microprocessing resulting in increased computing power and computer speed allows to create and simulate increasingly complex systems or 3D measurement structures. Using these possibilities, the paper presents the results of a computer simulation of a fiber optic reflective structure. Special attention is paid to the effect of deflection changes in the reflective surface and to the diffuse reflection from the analyzed surface.