High Performance Single Nanometer Lithography (SNL) is an enabling technology for beyond CMOS and future
nanoelectronics. To keep on with scaling down nanoelectronic components, novel instrumentation for nanometer precise
placement, overlay alignment and measurement are an essential pre-requirement to realize Next Generation Lithography
(NGL) systems. In particular, scanning probe based methods for surface modification and lithography are an emerging
method for producing sub-10 nm features. In this study, we demonstrate nano-scale lithography using a scanning probe
based method in combination with a Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machine. The latter one has a measuring
range of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm, 0.1 nanometer resolution and outstanding nanometer accuracy. The basic concept
consists of a special arrangement allowing Abbe error free measurements in all axes over the total scan range.
Furthermore, the Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machine is able to store the exact location that can be found again
with an accuracy of less than 2.5 nanometers. This system is also predestinated for critical dimension, quality and
overlay control. The integrated scanning probe lithography is based on electric-field-induced patterning of calixarene. As
a result, repeated step response tests are presented in this paper.
Dimensional measurements of microstructures with uncertainties below 50nm require both nanopositioning and
nanomeasuring machines (NPMMs) as well as appropriate microprobes. This paper introduces a novel 3-D tactile
microprobe system developed at the Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Process Measurement and
Sensor Technology, and contains an analysis of its metrological characteristics.
This microprobe system uses a silicon membrane to induce the measurement force and to operate as the
damping system for the stylus. This damping is entirely brought about by internal friction. An optical detection
system measures the deflection of the membrane and thus of the stylus. The optical detection system uses a
single laser beam, focused on the backside of the silicon membrane. The reflected beam is split, with one part
being used to measure the tilt about the x- and y-axes and the other part being fed back into an interferometer
for deflection measurement in the z-direction. Thus, the deflection of the membrane can be measured with
An NPMM was used to analyse the metrological characteristics of the microprobe system and to calibrate
it. This paper focuses on a detailed analysis of the three-dimensional reproducibility for point measurements
by obtaining and evaluating a directional response pattern. This pattern is then compared to the behaviour of
other microprobe systems. Furthermore, the work shows that the microprobe system can be applied successfully
to scanning measurements and satisfactory results obtained. These results indicate that the microprobe system
is well-suited for universal measurement tasks in dimensional metrology.
The interferometric length measurement value in multi-axis positioning and measuring systems is directly influenced
by the topography of reference mirrors. Form deviations of the mirror plane can cause systematic
measurement errors because the specimen geometry is superimposed upon the topography of reference mirrors.
This article discusses the complete acquisition of the topography of a special mirror arrangement with the help
of a Fizeau interferometer to correct systematic measurement errors after the raw measurement using the expanded
three-flat test. Furthermore, other influencing factors are presented in the article, e.g., measurement
errors caused by the Fizeau interferometer. Additionally, temporal changes of the reference mirror topography
are detected by regularly occurring measurements, and the topography data used as the correction reference are