In this paper, a newly developed system for simultaneously measuring five-degree-of-freedom errors of
machine tools is introduced. A single-mode fiber-coupled laser module is used to eliminate the beam drift
of the laser source. Only a cube corner retro-reflector and a beam splitter are adopted in the moving target
in order to sense the straightness errors and angle errors (pitch and yaw) respectively and simultaneously. A
special prism (including a beam-splitter facet and an all-reflecting facet) was adopted to measure the roll. A
simple common-path compensation method for laser beam drift is put forward, and a 2D position-sensitive
detector and a lens are used to monitor angular drift of the laser beam.
It is convenient to measure the parameters of the numerical control machine in workshop due to non-cable
connecting between moving target and measurement head. The error analysis and theory analysis of roll
which provide potent theoretical guidance in the future are given in detail.