This paper introduces an 80x80 microbolometer array with a 35 μm pixel pitch operating in the 8-12 μm wavelength range, where the detector is fabricated with the LWIR-band CMOS infrared technology, shortly named as CIR, which is a novel microbolometer implementation technique developed to reduce the detector cost in order to enable the use of microbolometer type sensors in high volume markets, such as the consumer market and IoT. Unlike the widely used conventional surface micromachined microbolometer approaches, MikroSens’ CIR detector technology does not require the use of special high TCR materials like VOx or a-Si, instead, it allows to implement microbolometers with standard CMOS layers, where the suspended bulk micromachined structure is obtained by only few consecutive selective MEMS etching steps while protecting the wirebond pads with a simple lithograpy step. This approach not only reduces the fabrication cost but also increases the production yield. In addition, needing simple subtractive post-CMOS fabrication steps allows the CIR technology to be carried out in any CMOS and MEMS foundry in a truly fabless fashion, where industrially mature and Au-free wafer level vacuum packaging technologies can also be carried out, leading to cost advantage, simplicity, scalability, and flexibility. The CIR approach is used to implement an 80x80 FPA with 35 μm pixel pitch, namely MS0835A, using a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The fabricated sensor is measured to provide NETD (Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference) value of 163 mK at 17 fps (frames per second) and 71 mK at 4 fps with F/1.0 optics in a dewar environment. The measurement results of the wafer level vacuum packaged sensors with one side AR coating shows an NETD values of 112 mK at 4 fps with F/1.1 optics, i.e., demonstrates a good performance for high volume low-cost applications like advanced presence detection and human counting applications. The CIR approach of MikroSens is scalable and can be used to reduce the pixel pitch even further while increasing the array size if necessary for various other low-cost, high volume applications.
In order to demonstrate tunable absorption characteristics of ZnO, photodetection properties of ZnO based thin-film transistors are investigated. By controlling the occupancy of the trap states, the optical absorption coefficient of ZnO in the visible light spectrum is actively tuned with gate bias. An order of magnitude change of absorption coefficient is achieved. An optical modulator is proposed exploiting such tunable absorption mechanism.
In this study, TiO<sub>2</sub> films were deposited using thermal Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) system. It is observed that asdeposited ALD TiO<sub>2</sub> films are amorphous and not suitable as TFT channel material. In order to use the film as channel material, a post-annealing process is needed. Annealed films transform into a polycrystalline form containing mixed anatase and rutile phases. For this purpose, devices are annealed at 475°C and observed that their threshold voltage value is 6.5<sup>V</sup>, subthreshold slope is 0.35 V/dec, I<sub>on</sub>/I<sub>off</sub> ratios 2.5×106 and mobility value is 0.672 cm<sup>2</sup>/V.s. Optical response measurements showed that devices exhibits decent performance at ultraviolet region where TiO<sub>2</sub> has band to band absorption mechanism.