Retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, are leading causes of vision impairment, increasing in incidence worldwide due to an aging society. If diagnosed early, most cases could be prevented. In contrast to standard ophthalmic diagnostic tools, Raman spectroscopy can provide a comprehensive overview of the biochemical composition of the retina in a label-free manner. A proof of concept study of the applicability of nonresonant Raman spectroscopy for retinal investigations is presented. Raman imaging provides valuable insights into the molecular composition of an isolated ex vivo human retina sample by probing the entire molecular fingerprint, i.e., the lipid, protein, carotenoid, and nucleic acid content. The results are compared to morphological information obtained by optical coherence tomography of the sample. The challenges of in vivo Raman studies due to laser safety limitations and predefined optical parameters given by the eye itself are explored. An in-house built setup simulating the optical pathway in the human eye was developed and used to demonstrate that even under laser safety regulations and the above-mentioned optical restrictions, Raman spectra of isolated ex vivo human retinas can be recorded. The results strongly support that in vivo studies using nonresonant Raman spectroscopy are feasible and that these studies provide comprehensive molecular information of the human retina.
The development of technology infrastructure for EUV Lithography (EUVL) still requires higher levels of technology readiness in many fields. A large number of new materials will need to be introduced. For example, development of EUV compatible pellicles to adopt an approved method from optical lithography for EUVL needs completely new thin membranes which have not been available before. To support these developments, PTB with its decades of experience  in EUV metrology  provides a wide range of actinic and non actinic measurements at in-band EUV wavelengths as well as out of band. Two dedicated, complimentary EUV beamlines  are available for radiometric [4,5] characterizations benefiting from small divergence or from adjustable spot size respectively. The wavelength range covered reaches from below 1 nm to 45 nm  for the EUV beamlines  to longer wavelengths if in addition the VUV beamline is employed. The standard spot size is 1 mm by 1 mm with an option to go as low as 0.1 mm to 0.1 mm. A separate beamline offers an exposure setup. Exposure power levels of 20 W/cm2 have been employed in the past, lower fluencies are available by attenuation or out of focus exposure. Owing to a differential pumping stage, the sample can be held under defined gas conditions during exposure. We present an updated overview on our instrumentation and analysis capabilities for EUV metrology and provide data for illustration.