<p>Abnormally shaped red blood cells (RBCs), called poikilocytes, can cause anemia. At present, the biochemical abnormalities in poikilocytes are not well understood. Normal RBCs and poikilocytes were analyzed using whole-blood and single-cell methods. Poikilocytes were induced in rat blood by intragastrically administering titanium dioxide (TiO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticles. Complete blood count and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses were performed on whole-blood to measure average RBC morphology, blood hemoglobin (HGB), iron content, and other blood parameters. Follow-up confocal Raman spectroscopy was performed on single RBCs to analyze cell-type-specific HGB content. Two types of poikilocytes, acanthocytes and echinocytes, were observed in TiO<sub>2</sub> blood samples, along with normal RBCs. Acanthocytes (diameter 7.7 ± 0.5 μm) and echinocytes (7.6 ± 0.6 μm) were microscopically larger (<italic>p</italic> < 0.05) than normal RBCs (6.6 ± 0.4 μm) found in control blood samples (no TiO<sub>2</sub> administration). Similarly, mean corpuscular volume was higher (<italic>p</italic> < 0.05) in TiO<sub>2</sub> whole-blood (70.70 ± 1.97 fl) than in control whole-blood (67.42 ± 2.03 fl). Poikilocytes also had higher HGB content. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin was higher (<italic>p</italic> < 0.05) in TiO<sub>2</sub> whole-blood (21.84 ± 0.75 pg) than in control whole-blood (20.8 ± 0.32 pg). Iron content was higher (<italic>p</italic> < 0.001) in TiO<sub>2</sub> whole-blood (697.0 ± 24.5 mg / l) than in control whole-blood (503.4 ± 38.5 mg / l), which supports elevated HGB as iron is found in HGB. HGB-associated Raman bands at 1637, 1585, and 1372 cm<sup> − 1</sup> had higher (<italic>p</italic> < 0.001) amplitudes in acanthocytes and echinocytes than in RBCs from control blood and normal RBCs from TiO<sub>2</sub> blood. Further, the 1585-cm<sup> − 1</sup> band had a lower (<italic>p</italic> < 0.05) amplitude in normal RBCs from TiO<sub>2</sub> versus control RBCs. This represents biochemical abnormalities in normal appearing RBCs. Overall, poikilocytes, especially acanthocytes, have elevated HGB.</p>
Background: The effect of tea on teeth under temperature conditions has not been studied previously. Model: The present study used an in vitro one-week immersed tooth model with different tea temperatures, hot and cold. An in vivo tea administration model, allowing rats to drink tea over the course of a week, was also performed. Methods: Elemental content of tea leaves was identified by ICP-MS, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for elemental spectrum analysis, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for roughness analysis, scanning electron microscopy for ultrastructural assessment and histology used for structural assessments. Results: The LIBS analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the mineral elements (Zn, Mg, Ca, Sr and Fe) from tea in vivo. For in vitro, increases of Fe and K were significantly higher in the hot-tea group than in the cold-tea group, with a decrease of the elements in hydroxyapatite forming teeth, albeit not statistically significance, though. The LIBS showed that in vitro cold-tea group drastically increased Zn, C, Ca, Mn, Mg, P, Sr, Fe and K compared with cold-water. While in vitro hot-tea group was significantly increased in Mg, Ca, Sr, Fe and K compared with hot-water. The AFM did not show a significance difference among groups in vivo or in vitro, but in vivo tea presented a higher roughness compared with cold-tea, hot-tea and hot-water, indicating a polishing effect due to temperature and tea. Using scanning electron microscopy, hot-water induced cracks more than 1μm while cold-tea and hot-tea revealed extrinsic matter adhered to teeth. Histological analysis showed considerable increase in the percentage of mineralization from cold tea on the enamel surface. Conclusion: Under cold conditions, tea prompted an interaction of the inorganic components in teeth: Ca, Mg, P, Fe and K. An accumulation in the organic matrix was promoted by tea. However, high temperature facilitated deposition of metals associated with teeth staining. Moreover, under hot temperature teeth lost the mineral phase leading to demineralization. Even though green tea protects enamel, its potential is susceptible to prompting demineralization over dental structures under high temperatures.
The mechanism of coffee eliciting erosion on teeth is unclear as few studies have investigated the direct effect of coffee on enamel and dentin structures. The present study identified how coffee, the most popular beverage worldwide, induces staining and erosion on teeth. We show the grade of erosion of molars and incisors in Sprague Dawley rats from two different age groups, young (four weeks) and old (six months). We quantified the concentration of metals contained in coffee by mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). To determine elemental content in enamel (i.e. superficial) and dentin (i.e. substructure), we used Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. For LIBS, a significant decrease of Ca, P, and Na was observed in the young coffee group relative to agematched controls, whereas a significant increase in Mn, Fe, and K was observed. In the old coffee group, a significant increase of Mg, Fe, and K was observed along with a decrease of Mg, Ca, P, Na, Sr and Zn. For XRF, a significant decrease of the Ca/P ratio in the coffee group was observed. The SEM analysis showed pores and open spaces between young and old coffee groups, respectively. Thinning of enamel layers, loss of continuity in the enamel-dentin-junction, and wide spaces in dentin tubules with coffee use was found histologically. Coffee induces decalcification of teeth that corresponds to erosion, exposing the dentin structure by reducing enamel. Coffee immersion demonstrated an intrinsic staining in dentin by metal deposition.