We present the final design of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) Adaptive Secondary Mirrors System (ASMS), which comprises seven 1m class deformable mirrors segments plus seven hexapod positioners. Each deformable mirror is based on the well established contactless technology developed by AdOptica and already successfully deployed in several 8m class telescopes. The challenge for GMT is that the seven deformable mirrors will function as a single mirror. A subscale prototype made of 72 actuators has been produced to secure system final design: test setup and preliminary results are presented.
The Giant Magellan Telescope project is proceeding with design, fabrication, and site construction. The first two 8.4m primary mirror segments have been completed and placed in storage, three segments are in various stages of grinding and polishing, the sixth segment is in the initial stages of casting, and glass is in hand to cast the seventh segment. An industry contract is in place to complete the design and proceed with fabrication of the telescope structure. Residence buildings and other facilities at the Las Campanas site in Chile are complete. Hard rock excavation of the foundations for the enclosure and telescope pier is complete. Preliminary design of the enclosure has been completed and final design is underway. Seismic isolation system bearings have been tested. A primary mirror segment test cell that will be used to qualify control system components and software is being fabricated. Prototyping continues in several areas, including on-telescope wavefront sensing and control elements, telescope laser metrology, and a subscale Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM). Adaptive optics and phasing testbeds are under development. Construction activities were delayed by the global coronavirus pandemic, but work has now resumed.
The Fast-steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) of Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) consists of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments with an effective diameter of 3.2 m, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4 m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter by adapting axial support actuators. Breakaway System (BAS) is installed for protecting FSM from seismic overload or other unknown shocks in the axial support. When an earthquake or other unknown shocks come in, the springs in the BAS should limit the force along the axial support axis not to damage the mirror. We tested a single BAS in the lab by changing the input force to the BAS in a resolution of 10 N and measuring the displacement of the system. In this paper, we present experimental results from changing the input force gradually. We will discuss the detailed characteristics of the BAS in this report.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will feature two Gregorian secondary mirrors, an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) and a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM). The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and consists of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. This tiptilt capability thus enhances performance of the telescope in the seeing limited observation mode. The tip-tilt motion of the mirror is produced by three piezo actuators. In this paper we present a simulation model of the tip-tilt system which focuses on the piezo-actuators. The model includes hysteresis effects in the piezo elements and the position feedback control loop.
The Fast-Steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) of Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) consists of seven 1.1m diameter segments with effective diameter of 3.2m. Each segment is held by three axial supports and a central lateral support with a vacuum system for pressure compensation. Both on-axis and off-axis mirror segments are optimized under various design considerations. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. The design of the FSM mirror and support system configuration was optimized using finite element analyses and optical performance analyses. The design of the mirror cell assembly will be performed including sub-assembly parts consisting of axial supports, lateral support, breakaway mechanism, seismic restraints, and pressure seal. . In this paper, the mechanical results and optical performance results are addressed for the optimized FSM mirror and mirror cell assembly, the design considerations are addressed, and performance prediction results are discussed in detail with respect to the specifications
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be equipped with two Gregorian secondary mirrors: a fast-steering mirror (FSM) system for seeing-limited operations and an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) for adaptive optics observing modes. The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and is comprised of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment has a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and jitter. To verify the tip-tilt performance at various orientations, we performed tiptilt tests using a conceptual prototype of the FSM (FSMP) which was developed at KASI for R&D of key technologies for FSM. In this paper, we present configuration, methodology, results, and lessons from the FSMP test which will be considered in the development of FSM.
The Fast Steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will have seven 1.05 m diameter circular segments and rapid tip-tilt capability to stabilize images under wind loading. In this paper, we report on the assembly, integration, and test (AIT) plan for this complex opto-mechanical system. Each fast-steering mirror segment has optical, mechanical, and electrical components that support tip-tilt capability for fine coalignment and fast guiding to attenuate wind shake and jitter. The components include polished and lightweighted mirror, lateral support, axial support assembly, seismic restraints, and mirror cell. All components will be assembled, integrated and tested to the required mechanical and optical tolerances following a concrete plan. Prior to assembly, fiducial references on all components and subassemblies will be located by three-dimensional coordinate measurement machines to assist with assembly and initial alignment. All electronics components are also installed at designed locations. We will integrate subassemblies within the required tolerances using precision tooling and jigs. Performance tests of both static and dynamic properties will be conducted in different orientations, including facing down, horizontal pointing, and intermediate angles using custom tools. In addition, the FSM must be capable of being easily and safely removed from the top-end assemble and recoated during maintenance. In this paper, we describe preliminary AIT plan including our test approach, equipment list, and test configuration for the FSM segments.
The Giant Magellan Telescope project is proceeding with design, fabrication, and site construction. The first of the seven required 8.4-m primary mirror segments is completed and in storage, three segments are in various stages of grinding and polishing, and the fifth segment has been cast. Industry contracts are underway to complete the design of the telescope structure. Residence buildings and other facilities needed to support construction at the Las Campanas site in Chile are complete. Hard rock excavation is imminent in preparation for the pouring of concrete for the telescope pier and other foundations. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is informing the design of the telescope enclosure, and further construction work packages are being readied for tender. Seismic design considerations have resulted in the incorporation of a seismic isolation system into the telescope pier, as well as modifications to the primary mirror support system. Designs for the fast-steering and adaptive secondary mirrors, science instruments, and other subsystems are maturing. Prototyping is underway in various aspects, including on-sky testing of wavefront sensing and control elements, and the telescope metrology system. Our fabrication and construction schedule calls for engineering first light with a subset of primary mirror segments in late 2023, with buildout to the full configuration occurring in stages, paced by the availability of primary mirror segments and other components.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be equipped with two Gregorian secondary mirrors; a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM) for seeing-limited operations and an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) for adaptive optics observing modes. The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and is comprised of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary mirror. Each FSM segment has a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and jitter. The FSM is mounted on a two-stage positioning system; a macro-cell that positions the entire FSM segments as an assembly and seven hexapod actuators that position and drive the individual FSM segments. In this paper, we present a technical overview of the FSM development status. More details in each area of development will be presented in other papers by the FSM team.
The Giant Magellan Telescope Project is in the construction phase. Production of the primary mirror segments is underway with four of the seven required 8.4m mirrors at various stages of completion and materials purchased for segments five and six. Development of the infrastructure at the GMT site at Las Campanas is nearing completion. Power, water, and data connections sufficient to support the construction of the telescope and enclosure are in place and roads to the summit have been widened and graded to support transportation of large and heavy loads. Construction pads for the support buildings have been graded and the construction residence is being installed. A small number of issues need to be resolved before the final design of the telescope structure and enclosure can proceed and the GMT team is collecting the required inputs to the decision making process. Prototyping activities targeted at the active and adaptive optics systems are allowing us to finalize designs before large scale production of components begins. Our technically driven schedule calls for the telescope to be assembled on site in 2022 and to be ready to receive a subset of the primary and secondary mirror optics late in the year. The end date for the project is coupled to the delivery of the final primary mirror segments and the adaptive secondary mirrors that support adaptive optics operations.
Recent advancements in single crystal silicon material science and fabrication capabilities and very low absorption (VLA) multi-layer dielectric coating technology have led to the development of uncooled, large aperture, high power mirrors for high energy laser (HEL) systems. Based on this success, a segmented single-crystal silicon substrate concept has been selected as the baseline fabrication approach for uncooled 1.2 meter diameter resonator annular optics for the Alpha space based high energy laser. The objective of this Resonator Optics Materials Assessment (ROMA) task was to demonstrate all of the key fabrication processes required to fabricate the full sized annular optics for the Alpha space based high energy laser. This paper documents the fabrication of a half-scale annular optic prototype (AOP) of the Alpha laser rear cone.