The suitability and efficiency of network architectures strongly depend on the service requirements and the mixture of services at different network levels. A case study has been performed in which five different service scenarios have been defined considering the characteristics of network operators. Starting with a service scenario which assumes only Layer 3 IP services, the amount of Layer 2 (Ethernet) and Layer 2 services (leased line) have been increased subsequently in the remaining four scenarios. Moreover, Layer 1 services have been differentiated with respect to broadband leased lines and narrowband services. The service scenarios have been applied to assess network architectures based on IP/MPLS, Ethernet and flexible and static optical systems, respectively. The impact of control plane implementations, i.e GMPLS and ASON, have been analyzed. Ethernet is making its way into metro and core networks. The development of Ethernet services and technology and their integration into MPLS/GMPLS based networks is still hampered by open issues. Evolutions in this area will be a key differentiator for network architecture evolutions.