At 4th-generation synchrotron nanoprobes with optimized photon density, focusing optics systems often require mirrors arrangements with high demagnification factors to achieve diffraction-limited beam sizes (∠ 100 nm) and still high photon flux. All the components’ contributions to the surface error must be at the same level (a few nanometers) and angular stability (lower than 10 nrad RMS) becomes a bottleneck issue. Therefore, the design of ultra-stable mirror mechanics has to follow a systems perspective, where precision engineering, metrology and alignment strategies are considered simultaneously. For the latest design at Sirius/LNLS, an exactly-constrained KB set with minimum number of adjustment degrees for increased stiffness and stability was also bounded by an alignment error budget in the order of tens of microns by construction, pushing metrology limits during alignment and validation phases. This work presents a two-phase strategy for metrology-assisted assembly and figure validation of elliptical mirror sets, starting at a Fizeau Interferometer system (FZI) and finishing at a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). The first phase validates surface quality by scanning mirror position and automatically realigning interferometry fringe patterns, while pixel-level stitching techniques are employed to characterize the surface error over the mirror’s length. The stitching algorithm includes self-calibration of lens errors and uses multiple CPU cores for expedite processing. The second phase consists of fiducializing the elliptical figures of each mirror into their own substrates and assembling both mirrors with regard to each other by using a least-squares fit of the center and rotation angle of each fixed ellipse, obtained from the manufacturer’s documentation, and confirmed at the first phase. This workflow was applied and demonstrated at an ultra-stable exactly-constrained KB system, reaching sufficient alignment accuracy.
Synchrotron scanning X-ray microscopy has been established as a mature technique, bridging the gap between conventional optical microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy and, notably, adding advantages like large penetration in bulky samples, dose reduction and spectroscopy. The CARNAÚBA beamline at the 4th generation synchrotron source Sirius-LNLS provides an X-ray nanoprobe for simultaneous multi-analytical and coherent X-ray imaging techniques, with spectroscopic capabilities in the 2.05 to 15 keV energy range. The sample is raster-scanned through the nanoprobe to provide two-dimensional maps, which can then be combined with a rotation for computed tomography. In this contribution, some relevant scientific cases for the Day-1 experiments will be presented, along with original instrument solutions for in situ, in operando, cryogenic and in vivo sample environments.
CARNAÚBA (Coherent X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline) is an X-ray beamline under construction for the SIRIUS light source at LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory). The aim of the beamline is to provide multi-analytical and coherent X-ray imaging techniques based on achromatic optics in the energy range between 2 and 15 keV. Computed tomography will extend these techniques into three dimensions. Two end-stations are under development: an all-invacuum nanoprobe (SAPOTI) and a sub-microprobe (TARUMÃ), with a more flexible sample environment and much larger working distance. TARUMÃ will cover a large variety of scientific areas, from environmental, geophysical, agricultural and biological research to energy and more condensed matter related areas. Its design characteristics, with its mechanical design heavily based on precision engineering concepts and predictive modeling, are presented here, as well as some prospects on in situ, in operando and cryogenic sample environment experiments.