Freeform surfaces enable imaginative optics by providing abundant degrees of freedom for an optical designer as compared to spherical surfaces. An off-axis two-mirror–based telescope design is presented, in which the primary mirror is a concave prolate spheroid and the secondary mirror is freeform surface-based. The off-axis configuration is employed here for removing the central obscuration problem which otherwise limits the central maxima in the point spread function. In this proposed design, an extended X−Y polynomial is used as a surface descriptor for the off-axis segment of the secondary mirror. The coefficients of this extended polynomial are directly related to the Seidel aberrations, and are thus optimized here for a better control of asymmetric optical aberrations at various field points. For this design, the aperture stop is located 500 mm before the primary mirror and the entrance pupil diameter is kept as 80 mm. The effective focal length is 439 mm and covers a full field of view of 2 deg. The image quality obtained here is near diffraction limited which can be inferred from metrics such as the spot diagram and modulation transfer function.
A multiple-laser flash shadowgraphy system has been innovatively designed and developed to study the terminal effects of projectiles. The system has been designed based on modulated laser diodes operated at low voltage and current. In order to study the ballistics effects of small arms, an exposure time of the order of a few hundreds ns and a delay time of the order of a few tens of µs are needed. An ultrashort pulse generator has been developed to provide the exposure and delay time pulses. The developed system has been integrated with a field lens assembly and camera assembly. To record the shadowgraphs, a target is placed near the center of the field lens and a bullet is fired from a fixed gun. The system is described, and experimental results and conclusions are reported.