Searching and tracking at night can be enhanced using flashlights and body-mounted lamps with optimized illumination spectra while using less battery power. Benefits include improved situational awareness and more rapid identification of important detail, hazards, and surface conditions (e.g., water, ice, or oil films) for a wide range of both military and civilian personnel. Many complex natural surfaces appear as dark brown, grey, or black. Small spectral differences can be critically important for the identification of surface structures and objects. Improved visual object detail recognition is possible if differential color can be enhanced. Over 18,000 reflected spectral data measurements from natural terrestrial objects such as recently disturbed soils, ground clutter, foliage, bark, fungi, minerals, blood, and a wide variety of ground hazards have been collected and analyzed to predict the optimal spectra illumination for the tasks of visually differentiating color, topology, and detail in natural terrestrial objects and many other surfaces. This paper relates and summarizes a vast amount of reflected light data with human visual sensitivity. We found that broad-spectrum, over-90 CRI LED light sources with boosted cyan (480-510nm) and a wide range of visible reds (610-700nm) can better highlight differences in many darker-shade objects and most other surfaces better than cool-white, neutral, or warm-white LED flashlights and head-worn lamps typically used today even though the perceived “brightness” in lumens is lower for a given amount of illumination power.
Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display technology has been developing rapidly. A review of near-eye
applications indicates its utility and efficiency, especially in comparison to legacy technologies. Next-generation
designs now feature improved performance (significantly increased luminance and lifetime), further underscoring the
utility of this display technology for consumer, military and industrial applications. Consumer applications include
electronic gaming and personal entertainment. Military and industrial applications include situational awareness,
thermal imaging, and simulation & training. Recent development activity is already leading to new opportunities for
technological advances supporting a broader range of applications.
Modern avionics systems are required to impart very large volumes of information about the aircraft's external environment, subsystems, operations, and navigation in real time with minimal impact on the pilot's ability to perform duties and minimal requirements for power and space. To achieve this, high resolution, high brightness displays are required, most often also requiring full color and full video rate. These displays should not demand much space or power and must be reliable, long-lived and able to operate in extreme environments, such as wide temperature ranges, large brightness ranges, and high acceleration and shock. Field emitter array based displays (FEDs) present the avionics community with an opportunity to obtain CRT-like performance in a thin, lighter weight, and more power efficient package. While cathodoluminescent is energy efficient, beam blocking shadow masks, heated filaments, and electromagnets waste most of the CRT's power. Row at a time addressing in FEDs lowers the peak current per pixel, decreases flicker, and increases phosphor life. There are also other opportunities made possible by FEDs such as built-in electronics subsystem capability, true matrix formatting, and an ability to distort arrays to correct for optics systems. Flat-panel displays utilizing field emission array-based technology offer such characteristics, and promise to do so with reduced cost when compared to alternative solutions.
Field emitter array-based display technology offers CRT-like characteristics in a thin flat-panel display with many potential applications for vehicle-mounted, crew workstation, and helmet-mounted displays, as well as many other military and commercial applications. In addition to thinness, high brightness, wide viewing angle, wide temperature range, and low weight, field emitter array displays also offer potential advantages such as row-at-a-time matrix addressability and the ability to be segmented.
Silicon field emitter arrays (FEAs) have been fabricated with a unique orientation dependent etching process and oxidation sharpening process to produce uniform and reproducible single point gated structures. Electron emission currents from these single silicon field emitters have exceeded 20 microamperes with extraction gate voltages less than 200 V. These pyramidal field emitters have a 'cone' angle of about 70 degrees with a tip radius of curvature of about 100 angstroms. The gate metallization has been formed from a variety of materials, notably platinum and polysilicon. Similar electron emission results have been operated continually in an unbaked vacuum system in the multi-microampere regime for over 600 hours without a change in their emission properties. Significant numbers of individually addressed field emitters can be fabricated on small silicon chips, and many chips can be fabricated on a silicon wafer, thereby making the cost per chip reasonably low. Microstructural Einzel lenses have also been fabricated with 5 pole electrodes as well as arrays of deflectors. The combination of the technology of microstructural field emission and microstructural lenses and deflectors offer a unique opportunity for nanolithography, novel devices, and electron/ion microscopy. Microstructurally Integrated Lens and Emitter Systems (MILES) offer the potential for massively parallel electron beam applications and electron/ion source redundancy.
Conference Committee Involvement (10)
Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality (XR) Technology for Multi-Domain Operations III
3 April 2022 | Orlando, Florida, United States
Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality (XR) Technology for Multi-Domain Operations II
12 April 2021 | Online Only, Florida, United States
Situation Awareness in Degraded Environments 2020
27 April 2020 | Online Only, California, United States
Situation Awareness in Degraded Environments 2019
16 April 2019 | Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Situation Awareness in Degraded Environments 2018
17 April 2018 | Orlando, Florida, United States
Degraded Environments: Sensing, Processing, and Display 2017
11 April 2017 | Anaheim, California, United States
Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security, and Avionics IX
22 April 2015 | Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security, and Avionics VIII
8 May 2014 | Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security, and Avionics VII
2 May 2013 | Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security, and Avionics VI
26 April 2012 | Baltimore, Maryland, United States