Oxygen shows significant absorption lines in the millimeter wave spectrum. Resonators are widely used to achieve a strong absorption even with a short absorption paths length for concentration measurements. A sensor system based on a Fabry-Pérot resonator for oxygen measurements at ambient pressure is presented here. The Fabry-Pérot resonator consists of two metal mirrors with a diameter of 50 mm. For purpose of oxygen detection the resonator covers a frequency range between 55 GHz and 65 GHz with a resonant peak density between 1 GHz and 1.5 GHz, depending on the mirror distance, and a quality factor of approximately 7000. To achieve a compact sensor system the concept envisages two integrated transceiver circuits directly coupling to coaxial ports in the metal mirrors of the resonator. The integrated SiGe front-end addresses a frequency band from 50 GHz to 75 GHz. They are realized as heterodyne structures with integrated directional couplers, thus it is possible to measure scattering parameters. For first oxygen concentration measurements, the resonator sample was coupled to a commercially available Vector Network Analyzer. The cavity was filled with oxygen concentrations of 0% vol. and 20% vol. at ambient pressure and temperature resulting in a significant change of the quality factor for frequencies close to the oxygen absorption line at 60.6 GHz. The sensor does not contain hot components. This is an advantage compared to other oxygen sensors, like electrochemical or metal-oxide sensors.
Efficient light management in optoelectronic devices requires nanosystems where high optical qualities coincide with suitable device integration. The requirement of chemical and electrical passivation for integrating nanostrutures in e.g. thin film solar cells points towards the use of insulating and stable dielectric material, which however has to provide high scattering and near-fields as well. We investigate metal@dielectric core-shell nanoparticles and dielectric nanorods. Whereas core-shell nanoparticles can be simulated using Mie theory, nanorods of finite length are studied with the finite element method. We reveal that a metallic core within a thin dielectric shell can help to enhance scattering and near-field cross sections compared to a bare dielectric nanoparticle of the same radius. A dielectric nanorod has the benefit over a dielectric nanosphere in that it can generate much higher scattering cross sections and also give rise to a high near-field enhancement along its whole length. Electrical benefits of e.g. Ag@oxide nanoparticles in thin-film solar cells and ZnO nanorods in hybrid devices lie in reduction of recombination centers or close contact of the nanorod material with the surrounding organics, respectively. The optical benefit of dielectric shell material and elongated dielectric nanostructures is highlighted in this paper.