Stochastic effects in extreme ultraviolet lithography are contributed by the EUV optical speckle and diffusion chemistry of the photoresist. These cause line edge roughness (LER) in the etched features, shrinking the process window at the sub-20nm lithography node. We explore possibilities of utilizing the speckle for optical metrology and resist characterization by measuring the latent image of the EUV light on photoresist. The latent image on a standard photoresist measured using atomic force microscopy is shown to linearly depend on the aerial image intensity within a specific dose range, hence serving as an in-situ imaging modality to measure the EUV aerial image without a camera. Potential applications include EUV wavefront measurement, resist characterization, and LER engineering.
We present a simple technique which uses a random phase object for single-shot characterization of an optical system's phase transfer function. Existing methods for aberration measurement typically involve holography, requiring complicated wavefront sensing optics or through-focus measurements with known test objects (e.g. pinholes, fluorescent beads) for pupil recovery from the measured wavefront. Here, it is demonstrated that a weak diffuser can be used to recover the pupil of an imaging system in a single measurement, without exact knowledge of the diffuser's surface. Due to its stochastic nature, the diffuser scatters light to a wide range of spatial frequencies, thus probing the entire pupil plane. A linear theory based on the weak object approximations predicts the spectrum of the measured speckle intensity to depend directly on the pupil function. Numerical simulations of diffusers with varying strength confirm the validity of the theory and indicate sufficient conditions under which diffusers act as weak phase objects. Using index matching oils to modulate diffuser strength, experiments are shown to successfully recover aberrations from an optical system using coherent illumination. Additionally, this technique is applied to the recovery of defocus in images of a weak phase object obtained through a commercial microscope under partially coherent illumination.
Microchannel plates that have been constructed by atomic layer deposition of resistive and
secondary emissive layers, onto borosilicate glass microcapillary arrays provide a novel alternative
to conventional microchannel plates for detection of radiation and particles. Conventional
microchannel plates can also benefit from atomic layer deposition of highly efficient secondary
emissive layers. Our evaluations of these techniques have revealed unique features of atomic layer
functionalized microchannel plates, including enhanced stability and lifetime, low background rates,
and low levels of adsorbed gas. In addition borosilicate glass microcapillary arrays show enhanced
physical and thermal robustness, which makes it possible to successfully fabricate large area devices
(20 cm) with good uniformity of operational characteristics.