Modern trends in camera module design for both mobile and DSC applications are driving the race to shrink pixel and
increase pixel array size. At the same time higher demands on the quality of color images - DSC-like quality for mobile
applications - require maintaining a large pixel capacity, quantum efficiency (QE), and sensitivity to preserve color
image quality. This becomes extremely difficult as the size of the pixel shrinks. This paper discusses the Common
Element Pixel Architecture (CEPA) for image sensors with small pixels as well as new pixel designs and process
changes, that have enabled a new generation of image sensors with high performance 2.2-μm, 1.75-μm, and smaller
pixels. Advanced algorithms of capturing the image help to overcome the challenges associated with the limited pixel
capacity of small pixels. The paper considers an HDR mode of operation for the small pixel and its effect on the image
quality. Achieving good color crosstalk performances is one of the big challenges in CMOS Image Sensors with small
pixels. The paper presents results of an experimental study of crosstalk for different pixel sizes, analyzes the effect of
crosstalk on the quality of color image and signal-to-noise ratio after color processing, and discusses ways of cross talk
reduction for small pixels.
This paper describes focal plane arrays and thermovision systems for the middle infrared spectral region. The focal plane arrays are monolithic platinum silicide Schottky barrier infrared charge coupled devices. They have been designed for infrared imaging application in the 1 divided by 5.5 micrometers wavelength range. The array advantages include the high thermal and spatial resolution, the low noise readout, and a high uniformity of the sensitivity. Two types of infrared focal plane arrays are being discussed and experimental characteristics of the arrays are presented. High quality thermal images of real time can be produced by using this focal plane arrays. Different design configurations of FPA-modules for Sterling cooler are being considered and the features of the information processing in thermovision systems are presented. The thermovision system based on designed arrays with the lens f/1.1, 90 mm provides a temperature resolution: NETD equals 0.07 K.
This paper describes hybrid coordinate addressed focal plane arrays based on thin films of lead chalcogenides and sensitive in different wavebands of the infrared spectral regions. The arrays feature high sensitivity, close to BLIP- mode, wide dynamic range and low heat dissipation. Their advantages include random access, element block selection, image scaling and on-chip data encoding. The focal plane arrays for various spectral ranges have an identical design, topology and electrical characteristics of photosensitive layers, and can be used for construction of multispectral optoelectronic systems. The arrays for near and middle infra-red spectral diapason work in wide range of temperatures, that permits to create on their basis photodetecting systems both with cryogenic and thermoelectric cooling. Different design configurations with elements from 128 X 128 to 256 X 256 are discussed and experimental characteristics of the arrays are presented.