We present state-of-the-art performance from laser based light sources based on semipolar GaN. Recent advances toward the commercialization of blue, InGaN semipolar laser diodes are described. Additionally, we introduce next generation white light sources based on laser-pumped phosphor architectures.
The use of silver filled PMMA as a sacrificial layer for the fabrication of multilevel LIGA microparts is presented. In this technique, a bottom level of standard electroformed LIGA parts is first produced on a metallized substrate such as a silicon wafer. A methyl methacrylate formulation mixed with silver particles is then cast and polymerized around the bottom level of metal parts to produce a conducting sacrificial layer. A second level of PMMA x-ray resist is adhered to the bottom level of metal parts and conducting PMMA and patterned to form another level of electroformed features. This presentation will discuss some the requirements for the successful fabrication of multilevel, cantilevered LIGA microparts. It will be shown that by using a silver filled PMMA, a sacrificial layer can be quickly applied around LIGA components; cantilevered microparts can be electroformed; and the final parts can be quickly released by dissolving the sacrificial layer in acetone.
Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA), a positive resist, is the most commonly used resist for deep X-ray lithography (DXRL)/LIGA technology. Although PMMA offers superior quality with respect to accuracy and sidewall roughness but it is also extremely insensitive. In this paper, we present our research results on SU-8 as negative resist for deep X-ray lithography. The results show that SU-8 is over two order of magnitude more sensitive to X-ray radiation than PMMA and the accuracy of the SU-8 microstructures fabricated by deep X-ray lithography is superior to UV-lithography and comparable to PMMA structures. The good pattern quality together with the high sensitivity offers rapid prototyping and direct LIGA capability. Moreover, the combinational use of UV and X-ray lithography as well as the use of positive and negative resists made it possible to fabricate complex multi-level 3D microstructures. The new process can be used to fabricate complex multi-level 3D structures for MEMS, MOEMS, Bio-MEMS or other micro-devices.
The Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) at Louisiana State University (LSU) supports one of the strongest programs in synchrotron radiation based microfabrication in particular, in deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) in the USA. For taller microstructures above 500 micrometers height, a harder source has been made available at CAMD using a 5-pole 7T super-conducting wiggler that has been installed in one of the straight sections of the synchrotron ring. A beamline and exposure station designed for ultra deep X-ray lithography (UDXRL) has been constructed and connected to the wiggler. An in-air scanner system has been built and installed at the beamline in approximately 10m distance to the source point. The scanner system features a fully water-cooled mask and substrate assembly to allow accurate patterning of high aspect ratio microstructures. The performance of the entire exposure system has been qualified and being proved compatible to standard exposure tools. Simultaneous exposure of a stack of four graphite substrates with 500 micrometers thick PMMA resist layers illustrate the potential for a cost-effective mass production of LIGA microstructures at hard UDXLR sources. The samples have been exposed using a 600 micrometers thick beryllium mask with 50 micrometers gold absorber. Dose calculations for the stacked exposures and preliminary exposure results as well as measurements of patterning accuracy over structure height and structure quality are presented.
Masks made from graphite stock material have been demonstrated as a cost-effective and reliable method of fabricating X-ray masks for deep and ultra-deep x-ray lithography (DXRL and UDXRL, respectively). The focus on this research effort was to fabricate masks that were compatible with the requirements for deep and ultra deep X-ray lithography by using UV optical lithography and gold electroforming. The major focus was on the uniform application of a thick resist on a porous graphite substrate. After patterning the resist, gold deposition was performed to build up the absorber structures using pulsed- electroplating. In this paper we will report on the current status of the mask fabrication process and present some preliminary exposure results.
The Center for Advanced Micro structures and Devices (CAMD) at Louisiana State University supports one of the strongest programs in synchrotron radiation micro fabrication in the USA and, in particular, in deep x-ray lithography. Synchrotron radiation emitted form CAMD's bending magnets has photon energies in the range extending from the IR to approximately 20 keV. CAMD operates at 1.3 and 1.5 GeV, providing characteristic energies of 1.66 and 2.55 keV, respectively. CAMD bending magnets provide a relatively soft x-ray spectrum that limits the maximal structure height achievable within a reasonable exposure time to approximately 500 micrometers . In order to extend the x-ray spectrum to higher photon energies, a 5 pole 7T superconducting wiggler was inserted in one of the straight sections. A beam line and exposure station designed for ultra deep x-ray lithography was constructed and connected to the wiggler. First exposures into 1 mm and 2 mm thick PMMA resist using a graphite mask with 40 micrometers thick gold absorber has been completed.