We will discuss the performance, progress and trend of High Power Light Emitting Diodes (HP-LEDs), suitable for high
luminance applications like micro-display projection, car headlamps, spot lamps, theatre lamps, etc. Key drivers for the
high luminance applications are LED parameters such as internal quantum efficiency, extraction efficiency, drive
current, operating temperature and optical coupling efficiency, which are important for most applications as they also
enable higher lumen/$ ratios. Historical progress, prospects for improving these parameters and potential optical
luminance enhancement methods to meet the demands for the various illumination applications are presented.
High-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) were introduced in the market in 1998 by Lumileds. High-power LEDs have unique properties, very different from conventional light sources, creating never before possible solutions available to lighting designers. In this paper we will give an update on these devices and discuss the main benefits of LEDs compared to more traditional light sources. We will show that the benefits of high-power LEDs also relate to the organization of light they emit. Comparisons of more and less organized light sources as well as applications for highpower LEDs will be discussed.
Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.