The research and development work on the Advanced Light Source (ALS) upgrade to a diffraction limited storage ring light source, ALS-U, has brought to focus the need for near-perfect x-ray optics, capable of delivering light to experiments without significant degradation of brightness and coherence. The desired surface quality is characterized with residual (after subtraction of an ideal shape) surface slope and height errors of <50-100 nrad (rms) and <1-2 nm (rms), respectively. The ex-situ metrology that supports the optimal usage of the optics at the beamlines has to offer even higher measurement accuracy. At the ALS X-Ray Optics Laboratory, we are developing a new surface slope profiler, the Optical Surface Measuring System (OSMS), capable of two-dimensional (2D) surface-slope metrology at an absolute accuracy below the above optical specification. In this article we provide the results of comprehensive characterization of the key elements of the OSMS, a NOM-like high-precision granite gantry system with air-bearing translation and a custom-made precision air-bearing stage for tilting and flipping the surface under test. We show that the high performance of the gantry system allows implementing an original scanning mode for 2D mapping. We demonstrate the efficiency of the developed 2D mapping via comparison with 1D slope measurements performed with the same hyperbolic test mirror using the ALS developmental long trace profiler. The details of the OSMS design and the developed measuring techniques are also provided.
The advents of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited synchrotron storage ring sources of x-rays are catalyzing the development of new, ultra-high accuracy metrology methods. To fully exploit the potential of these sources, metrology needs to be capable of determining the figure of an optical element with sub-nanometer height accuracy. Currently, the two most prevalent slope measuring instruments used for characterization of x-ray optics are the auto-collimator based nanometer optical measuring device (NOM) and the long trace profiler (LTP) using pencil beam interferometry (PBI). These devices have been consistently improved upon by the x-ray optics metrology community, but appear to be approaching their metrological limits. Here, we revise the traditional optical schematic of the LTP. We experimentally show that, for the level of accuracy desired for metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray optics, the Dove prism in the LTP reference channel appears to be one of the major sources of instrumental error. Therefore, we suggest returning back to the original PBI LTP schematics with no Dove prism in the reference channel. In this case, the optimal scanning strategies [Yashchuk, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 115101 (2009)] used to suppress the instrumental drift error have to be used to suppress a possible drift error associated with laser beam pointing instability. We experimentally and by numerical simulation demonstrate the usefulness of the suggested approach for measurements with x-ray optics with both face up and face down orientations.
The development of deterministic polishing techniques has given rise to vendors that manufacture high quality threedimensional x-ray optics. The surface metrology on these optics remains a difficult task. For the fabrication, vendors usually use unique surface metrology tools, generally developed on site, that are not available in the optical metrology labs at x-ray facilities. At the Advanced Light Source X-Ray Optics Laboratory, we have developed a rather straightforward interferometric-microscopy-based procedure capable of sub microradian characterization of sagittal slope variation of x-ray optics for two-dimensionally focusing and collimating (such as ellipsoids, paraboloids, etc.). In the paper, we provide the mathematical foundation of the procedure and describe the related instrument calibration. We also present analytical expression describing the ideal surface shape in the sagittal direction of a spheroid specified by the conjugate parameters of the optic’s beamline application. The expression is useful when analyzing data obtained with such optics. The high efficiency of the developed measurement and data analysis procedures is demonstrated in results of measurements with a number of x-ray optics with sagittal radius of curvature between 56 mm and 480 mm. We also discuss potential areas of further improvement.
The semiconductor industry is moving toward a half-pitch of 7 nm. The required metrology equipment should be one order of magnitude more accurate than that. Any metrology tool is only as good as it is calibrated. The characterization of metrology systems requires test patterns that are one order of magnitude smaller than the measured features. The test sample was designed in such a way that the distribution of linewidths appears to be random at any location and any magnification. The power spectral density of such pseudo-random test pattern is inherently flat, down to the minimum size of lines. Metrology systems add a cut-off of the spectra at high frequencies; the shape of the cut-off characterizes the system in its entire dynamic range. This method is widely used in optics, and has allowed optical systems to be perfected down to their diffraction limit. There were attempts to use the spectral method to characterize nanometrology systems such as SEMs, but the absence of natural samples with known spatial frequencies was a common problem. Pseudo-random test patterns with linewidths down to 1.5 nm were fabricated. The system characterization includes the imaging of a pseudo-random test sample and image analysis by a developed software to automatically extract the power spectral density and the contrast transfer function of the nanoimaging system.