The ubiquitous need for compact, low-cost and mass production photonic devices, for next generation photonic enabled applications, necessitates the development of integrated components exhibiting functionalities that are, to date, carried out by free space elements or standard fiber equipment. The polarization rotator is a typical example of such tendency, as it is a crucial part of the PBS operation of future transceiver modules that leverage polarization multiplexing schemes for increasing the optical network capacity. Up to now, a variety of integrated polarization rotating concepts has been proposed and reported, relying, mainly, on special waveguide crossection configurations for achieving the rotation. Nevertheless, most of those concepts employ SiPh or III-V integration platforms, significantly increasing the fabrication complexity required for customizing the waveguide crossection, which in turn leads to either prohibitively increased cost or compromised quality and performance. In this manuscript we demonstrate the extensive design of a low-cost integrated polymer polarization rotator employing a right-trapezoidal waveguide interfaced to standard square polymer waveguides. First the crossection of the waveguide is defined by calculating and analyzing the components of the hybrid modes excited in the waveguide structure, using a Finite Difference mode solver. Mode overlaps between the fundamental polymer mode and each hybrid mode reveal the optimum lateral offset between the square polymer and the trapezoidal waveguide that ensures both minimum interface loss and maximized polarization rotation performance. The required trapezoidal waveguide length is obtained through EigenMode Expansion (EME) propagation simulations, while more than 95% maximum theoretical conversion efficiency is reported over the entire C-band, resulting to more than 13dB polarization extinction ratio. The polarization rotator design relies on the development of angled polymer waveguide sidewalls, employing the tilted laser ablation technology, currently available at CMST. Therefore, the aforementioned simulation steps adhere fully to the respective design rules, taking into account the anticipated fabrication variations
We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, a SiN-assisted in-plane adiabatic coupler between SiPh and onboard glass waveguides. Our numerical study is founded on an actual graded index glass waveguide developed by Fraunhofer-IZM. The Silicon taper profile and the optimal length are extracted employing the supermode theory and the adiabatic theorem. Fabrication and assembly issues are investigated, resulting to an optimized coupler design that exhibits a theoretical Si-to-glass loss below 0.1dB over the entire C-band. The proposed solution can be realized utilizing standard passive flip-chip assembly equipment and is, therefore, cost-effective, easy to be fabricated, and well-suited for compact packaging.
We demonstrate a polarization-insensitive coupler interfacing multicore-fiber (MCF) to silicon waveguides. It comprises a 3D glass fanout transforming the circular MCF core-arrangement to linear and performing initial tapering, followed by a Spot-Size-Converter on the silicon chip. Glass waveguides are formed of multiple overlapped modification elements and appropriate offsetting thereof yields tapers with symmetric cross-section. The Spot-Size-Converter is an inverselytapered silicon waveguide with a tapered polymer overcladding where light is initially coupled, whereas phase-matching gradually shifts it towards the silicon core. Co-design of the glass fanout and Spot-Size-Converter obtains theoretical loss below 1dB for the overall Si-to-MCF transition in both polarizations.