A novel method of beam steering, utilizing a mass-produced Digital Micromirror Device (DMD), enables a reliable single chip Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) with a large field of view while having minimum moving components. In the single-chip LIDAR, a short-pulsed laser is fired in a synchronous manner to the micromirrors rotation during the transitional state. Since the pulse duration of the laser pulse is substantially short compared to the transitional time of the mirror rotation, virtually the mirror array is frozen in transition at several discrete points, which forms a programmable and blazed grating. The programmable blazed grating efficiently redirects the pulsed light to a single diffraction order among several while employing time of flight measurement. Previously, with a single 905nm nanosecond laser diode and Si avalanche photo diode, a measurement accuracy and rate of <1 cm and 3.34k points/sec, respectively, was demonstrated over a 1m distance range with 48° full field of view and 10 angular resolution. We have also increased the angular resolution by employing multiple laser diodes and a single DMD chip while maintaining a high measurement rate of 3.34k points/s. In addition, we present a pathway to achieve 0.65° resolution with 60° field of view and 23k points/s measurement rate.
Spatial light modulators (SLMs) that operate in a phase modulation mode enable beam steering with higher diffraction efficiency compared to amplitude modulation mode, thus potentially be used for an efficient beam steering with no moving part. Currently, Twisted Nematic phase SLMs are widely adopted for phase modulation. However, their refresh rate is typically in the range below kilohertz. Recently, a new method for binary and spatial phase modulation using Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) was proposed by a research group in Germany. In the method, complemental self-images of DMD, corresponding to on- and off-pixels, are formed by two auxiliary optics while adding a pi phase shift between two images. The optics function as recycling of light in a coherent manner. The method enables over kilohertz refresh rate and higher diffraction efficiency in binary phase modulation mode to conventional amplitude binary modulation.
As alternatives to the binary phase modulation, we propose and experimentally evaluated high-speed beam steering by DMD based on light recycling. In our experiment, with binary phase modulation mode, system output efficiency reaches 8%. It can be doubled to 16% with light recycling method. Efficiency is still low compared to the reported value of 27% without light recycling. To further increase beam efficiency, system loss was analysed.
An imaging lidar system is presented which combines the high speed of a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) and the higher range of a 1D collimated scanning output. The system employing 1D line object illumination along with DMD placed at focal plane enables flexible optimization of system metrics, such as field of view, angular resolution, maximum range distance and frame rate.
The cavity supports the orthogonal reference beam families as its eigenmodes while enhancing the reference beam power. Such orthogonal eigenmodes are used as additional degree of freedom to multiplex data pages, consequently increase storage densities for volume Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS) when the maximum number of multiplexed data page is limited by geometrical factor. Image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at multiple Bragg angles by using Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulators (SLMs) in reference arms. Total of nine holograms are recorded with three angular and three eigenmode.
Phase retrieval algorithm is gradually applied to the terahertz in-line digital holography, as its effectiveness in the removal of the zero-order diffraction light and twin image. Based on the experiments, the reconstruction results of the double-exposed phase retrieval algorithm are obtained which demonstrate that the method can improve the quality of reconstructed images, compared to the angular spectrum method. Furthermore, the influence of the superimposed frame number of the holograms in double-exposed phase retrieval algorithm is discussed. The result shows that the recording time can be reduced by reasonably decreasing the frames of the holograms and it contributes to real-time imaging and the algorithm practicality is also further improved.
Terahertz (THz) holography is a frontier technology in terahertz imaging field. However, reconstructed images of holograms are inherently affected by speckle noise, on account of the coherent nature of light scattering. Stationary wavelet transform (SWT) is an effective tool in speckle noise removal. In this paper, two algorithms for despeckling SAR images are implemented to THz images based on SWT, which are threshold estimation and smoothing operation respectively. Denoised images are then quantitatively assessed by speckle index. Experimental results show that the stationary wavelet transform has superior denoising performance and image detail preservation to discrete wavelet transform. In terms of the threshold estimation, high levels of decomposing are needed for better denoising result. The smoothing operation combined with stationary wavelet transform manifests the optimal denoising effect at single decomposition level, with 5×5 average filtering.
Proc. SPIE. 9522, Selected Papers from Conferences of the Photoelectronic Technology Committee of the Chinese Society of Astronautics 2014, Part II
KEYWORDS: Optical filters, 3D image reconstruction, Digital holography, Speckle, Digital filtering, Linear filtering, Digital imaging, Image filtering, Electronic filtering, Filtering (signal processing)
Terahertz digital holography combines the terahertz technology and digital holography technology at present, fully exploits the advantages in both of them. Unfortunately, the quality of terahertz digital holography reconstruction images is gravely harmed by speckle noise which hinders the popularization of this technology. In this paper, the maximum a posterior estimation (MAP) filter is harnessed for the restoration of the digital reconstruction images. The filtering results are compared with images filtered by Wiener Filter and conventional frequency-domain filters from both subjective and objective perspectives. As for objective assessment, we adopted speckle index (SPKI) and edge preserving index (EPI) to quantitate the quality of images. In this paper, Canny edge detector is also used to outline the target in original and reconstruction images, which then act as an important role in the evaluation of filter performance. All the analysis indicate that maximum a posterior estimation filtering algorithm performs superiorly compared with the other two competitors in this paper and has enhanced the terahertz digital holography reconstruction images to a certain degree, allowing for a more accurate boundary identification.
The phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) is a real-time electro-optic device capable of modulating the phase of an optical wavefront in space. SLMs have been harnessed for beam shaping. In this paper, an accelerated GS phase retrieval and iteration algorithm is used for designing the SLM phases which transformed a single-mode He-Ne laser into a ring-shaped pattern. These generated ring beams are investigated experimentally and the phenomena of the added prism phases are also observed. The experimental results showed that a given single-mode laser beam could be converted into a ring-shaped intensity distribution which corresponds to our designation.