Hybrid perovskites have emerged as exceptional semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. Here, we control the cation alloying to push optoelectronic performance through alteration of the charge carrier dynamics in mixed-halide perovskites. In contrast to single-halide perovskites, we find high luminescence yields for photo-excited carrier densities far below solar illumination conditions. Using time-resolved spectroscopy we show that the charge-carrier recombination regime changes from second to first order within the first tens of nanoseconds after excitation. Supported by microscale-mapping of the optical bandgap and elemental composition, electrically-gated transport measurements and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that spatially-varying energetic disorder in the electronic states causes local charge accumulation, creating p- and n-type photo-doped regions, which unearths a strategy for efficient light emission at low charge-injection in solar cells and LEDs.