The use of lasers in a projection display enables the creation of vibrant images with extensive color coverage. By
adding a phase modulators in illumination systems and keeping the most part structures of the classic projection,
speckle on the screen and retinas of the observers were restrained. The speckle's form and restraining were
simulated. It was obtained form simulations that the contrasts of residual speckle on screen and on retinas are
0.0107 and 0.0132. The simulation proves that speckle on screen and on retinas can be suppressed by phase
modulation of the illumination light in projection. It also indicated that the numerical aperture of projector affect
the residual speckle on retinas. Experiments of speckle restraining were performed. It confirmed the results of the
Photon sieve is a novel diffractive optical element modulating either amplitude or phase which consists of a great
number of pinholes distributed appropriately over the Fresnel zones for the focusing and imaging of light. Photon sieve
has the advantages of the diameter of pinholes beyond the limitation of the corresponding Fresnel zone width and the
minimum background in the focal plane. Furthermore, photon sieve can be fabricated on a single surface without any
supporting struts required unlike the Fresnel zone plate. Photon sieve can be used as EUV telescope for solar orbiter,
space-based surveillance telescope operating at visible light, or other imaging components. Photon sieve can also be
used as one of the promising lithographic tools for nanoscale science and engineering to obtain the lower cost, higher
flexibility and better resolution. The approaches to enhancing imaging resolution of photon sieve are presented in detail.
According to Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory, the diffractive field of photon sieve is described by means of the
discrete fast Fourier transform algorithm. The related contents include the calculation of point spread function, the
suppression of side lobes, the imaging bandwidth, the physical limit of resolution, and the diffraction efficiency. Imaging
properties of photon sieve are analyzed on the basis of precise test.
Nanolithography has been investigated by using optical proximity exposure in the evanescent near field in nano-filmed
noble metals. Sub-diffraction-limited feature size can be resolved by using i-line illumination exposure. Compared with
the model of original superlens, we separated the superlens 100nm away from the mask, under the illumination of i-line
light, the initial simulation shows that the sub-diffraction-limited feature as small as 60nm linewidth with 120nm pitch
can be clearly resolved without hard contact between mask and nano-filmed noble metal. By proper design of the
materials and the parameters of nano-filmed layers, better resolution can be realized.
Photon sieve is a kind of diffractive optical element modulating either amplitude or phase and thus suffers from
chromatic aberration or low diffraction efficiency. The narrowband imaging properties of photon sieve are illustrated
with point spread function test and resolution target test. Hybrid lens consisting of both refractive optical surfaces and
photon sieve are suggested to correct the chromatic aberration. Phase-photon sieve technology and surface plasmon polaritons technology may be promising approaches to improve the diffraction efficiency.
We present the lithography scheme that use high-numerical-aperture photon sieves array as focusing elements in a
scanning X-ray maskless nanolithography system. The system operating at wavelength of 0.5~2nm synchrotron light
sources radiated, each of a large array of photon sieves focuses incident X-ray into a diffraction-limited on-axis
nanoscale spot on the substrate coated photoresist. The X-ray intensity of each spot is modulated by means of a spatial
light modulator. Patterns of arbitrary geometry are exposed and written in a dot matrix fashion while the substrate on a
stepping stage is precisely driven in two dimensions according to the computer program. The characteristics of
synchrotron radiation light, resolution limits and depth of focus of the lithographic system are discussed. The design and
fabrication of photon sieve are illustrated with a low-numerical-aperture amplitude-photon sieve fabricated on a chrome-coated
quarts plate by means of laser-beam lithographic process, which minimum size of pinhole was 5.6um. The
focusing performance of the photon sieve operating at wavelength of 632.8nm was simulated and tested.