Humanity is associated with the environment throughout all stages of mankind evolution. Ongoing processes occurring with forest resources are being investigated on the territory of Kazakhstan. In order to quickly obtain information on the state of forests, it is necessary to organize a multi-level monitoring system based on integration of ground-based data and remote observations using innovative capabilities of geographic information technologies. This article discusses issues related to the semi-automatic thematic processing of forest resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan based on GIS using Earth remote sensing data. In order to increase productivity the model has been created in the specialized ArcGIS software. Using the satellite remote sensing data set, the model enables semi-automatic processing for detection of forest areas that have undergone changes, in particular, forest logging, burned areas, etc. The studies were carried out on a scientific basis using image analysis methods, spatial data analysis of remote sensing, the latest achievements in the field of modern GIS technologies.
Ground monitoring of soil massifs takes a lot of time, labor force and material resources, yet is the most accurate and detailed method. When implementing complex methods for monitoring the soil cover, inclusion of space technologies is necessary. Remote sensing data carry objective information over large areas, obtained in various spectral ranges. The article discusses the possibility of using remote sensing data for mapping and monitoring changes in the soil cover of Northern Kazakhstan. Based on thematic processing of remote sensing data of domestic satellites, spatial analysis of the content of main nutrients was executed in the sowing layer of soils, the relationship was revealed between fertility indicators and the value of vegetation indices for testing ground on the territory of Northern Kazakhstan.
The results of the project presented in this article were obtained within the framework of the implementation of the Republican budget program 010 "Ensuring the safety and expansion of the use of space infrastructure» from the Aerospace Committee of the Ministry of Defense and the aerospace industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Since 2018, the National Operator of the Earth Remote Sensing Space System (JSC NC Kazakhstan Gharysh Sapary) has begun work on studying geographic information systems for conducting space-based monitoring and forest management of the world. In Kazakhstan, forest area occupies less than 5% of the total area of the territory and therefore the question of monitoring of forest resources is particularly relevant: changes in forest area, number of loggings, number of burnt areas, fire danger forecast for forest cover, etc. Given the importance of forest as a climate and resource-forming factor, forest resources, changes in forest resources are estimated as one of the priority of scientific and practical directions. The article presents the results of using the Earth Remote Sensing data and geo-information technologies in the assessment of forest cover of Kazakhstan, the legality of loggings and estimation of the burnt areas, etc. As the result of space-based monitoring, according to the Earth remote sensing data, also confirmed by field surveys in key areas, for the first time ever all forests of Kazakhstan were decrypted, digital maps of forests of Kazakhstan were created with the detailed attribute information up to the species composition of forests, age and other specific information provided by the State Enterprise «Kazakh Forest Management enterprise», several thousand of logging were detected including illegal loggings, burnt areas were also decrypted and all data were uploaded to the industrial geoportal with up-to-date attribute information.
The results of researches presented in article were obtained within implementation of the scientific and technical program for program-targeted financing of applied scientific research on space activities for 2018-2020 by the Aerospace Committee of the Ministry of Defense and Aerospace Industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Considering the high production significance of soil resources for Kazakhstan as the main means of production, soil fertility assessment, methods of rational use of land resources is estimated as a priority scientific direction. The article shows the application of the remote sensing (RS) data and GIS-technologies for the assessment of the soil fertility of the main soils types in Northern Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is the ninth biggest country in the world, the production resource of arable lands takes more than 18.3 million hectares. Operational assessment of such data is possible only with use of RS methods. Kazakhstan, having own space system of ERS, has the powerful tool for effective management of land resources, operative and reliable monitoring of agricultural production and economic activity. It is established that the pre-sowing content of basic nutrients on the main soil types have the considerable impact on development of cultural plants biomass which is registered by satellites through vegetation indices. On the basis of empirical dependencies using the universal equation by reporting year the particular dependence of significance of some soil nutrients with derivates of vegetation indices according to the RS data is revealed. Results of space monitoring and also the confirmed ground-truth observations noted high anthropogenic influence on the leading soil-forming processes, high coefficient of familiarity of agricultural grounds and the developing processes of soil cover degradation in Northern Kazakhstan.