Writer identification is a topic of much renewed interest today because of its importance in applications such as writer
adaptation, routing of documents and forensic document analysis. Various algorithms have been proposed to handle such
tasks. Of particular interests are the approaches that use allographic features [1-3] to perform a comparison of the
documents in question. The allographic features are used to define prototypes that model the unique handwriting styles
of the individual writers. This paper investigates a novel perspective that takes alphabetic information into consideration
when the allographic features are clustered into prototypes at the character level. We hypothesize that alphabetic
information provides additional clues which help in the clustering of allographic prototypes. An alphabet information
coefficient (AIC) has been introduced in our study and the effect of this coefficient is presented. Our experiments
showed an increase of writer identification accuracy from 66.0% to 87.0% when alphabetic information was used in
conjunction with allographic features on a database of 200 reference writers.
Due to finite space, there is an increasing need to plan and develop strategic underground facilities and
infrastructures for various military and non-military applications in Singapore in recent years. The awareness of the
underground option among planners, developers, and financiers should be increased so that subsurface planning issues
can be better addressed. The lack of adequate and accurate 3D spatial data often makes the design and construction of
such underground works difficult. It is necessary to integrate all of the spatial objects for underground planning.
Over the past two decades, a number of commercial software systems have been developed for 3D geographic and
geological modeling. For example, VGEGIS software allows users to create 3D surface geological maps. 3D
GeoModeller, a 3D geological modeling and geophysical inversion package, allows project geologists to build realistic
3D geology models.
This paper presents an approach to integrate the geographic and geological models for underground planning. A
prototype of 3D Geographic Information System (3DGIS) called "3DRock" has been developed by authors to implement
the data integration with 3D GeoModeler. The results so far showed that 3DRock is able to integrate the above-surface,
surface, and subsurface information available from maps, sections, terrain models, topographic data, drillholes, etc. for
the Banyan Basin in Jurong Island, Singapore, in a case study.