In this paper, we present a novel device structure for organic electro-optic modulators using transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) as electrodes to substantially reduce the switching voltage, and describe their fabrication. We report two different types of device geometry, a top conducting and a side conducting geometry, and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. We discuss how the voltage and speed performance of such modulators are dependant on the conductivity/optical loss ratio of the TCO electrodes. Our device simulation shows that by appropriately engineering the high TCO conductivity/optical loss ratio, 4-6x lower switching voltage can be achieved while still maintaining high modulation frequencies and low optical loss. We show that certain new TCO materials are capable of achieving the high conductivity/optical loss required for efficient modulation in the 1300-1550 nm wavelength range. We summarize the optical loss characteristics at 1300 nm of different types of thin-film TCO materials grown using different deposition techniques. TCO electrodes based on different types of materials, such as In2O3, ZnO, and ITO have been investigated for our device structures. Fabrication issues associated with the deposition of TCO electrodes directly on organic EO materials and our approach to addressing them are discussed. Initial results for organic EO modulators fabricated with TCOs as electrodes are presented, and the performance of these modulators are compared with theoretical modeling results. The new device structures presented here will enable next generation low-voltage organic EO modulators targeting RF photonics applications.
Self-assembled superlattices (SASs) are intrinsically acentric and highly cross-linked structures. For organic electro-optics, they offer great advantages such as not requiring electric field poling for creating an acentric, EO-active microstructure and having excellent chemical, thermal, and orientational stabilities. In this paper, a greatly improved two-step all "wet-chemical" self-assembly (SA) approach is reported. Excellent radiation hardness of the SAS films is demonstrated by high-energy proton irradiation experiments. By introducing metal oxide nanolayers during SA, we show that the refractive indices of SAS films can be tuned over a wide range. Through special chromophore design, the optical absorption maxima of SAS films can also be greatly blue-shifted. Prototype waveguiding electro-optic modulators have been fabricated using the SAS films integrated with low-loss polymeric materials functioning as partial guiding and cladding layers. EO parameters such as the half-wave voltage and the effective electro-optic coefficient are reported.
The tunable ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers designed for wavelength-division-multiplex (WDM) communication systems at 1.55 micrometers by using selective area growth is reported. The threshold current of the DBR laser is 62 mA and the output power is more than 8 mW. The isolation resistance between the active region and the Bragg region is 30 K(Omega) . The total tuning range is 6.5 nm and this DBR laser can provide 6 continuous standard WDM channels with 100 GHz channel spacing; in the tuning range, the single mode suppression ratio is maintained more than 32 dB and the maximum output power variation is less than 3 dB.
The semi-insulating InP has been grown using ferrocene as a dopant source by low pressure MOCVD. Fe doped semi-insulating InP material whose resistivity is equal to 2.0 X 108(Omega) *cm and the breakdown field is greater than 4.0 X 104Vcm-1 has been achieved. It is found that the magnitude of resistivity increases with growing pressure enhancement under keeping TMIn, PH3, ferrocene [Fe(C5H5)2] flow constant at 620 degrees Celsius growth temperature. Moreover, the experimental results which resistivity varies with ferrocene mole fraction are given. It is estimated that active Fe doping efficiency, (eta) , is equal to 8.7 X 10-4 at 20 mbar growth pressure and 620 degrees Celsius growth temperature by the comparison of calculated and experimental results.