*firstname.lastname@example.org Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.
We developed software design tools in MATLAB that are compatible with Code V for supporting the process of designing zoom lenses. These tools simplify the process of finding paraxial solutions and evaluating intermediary design steps. Paraxial solutions are found through a partially random search for four group zoom systems with moving second and third groups. It requires several user-specified system parameters and then randomly assigns powers to each group. This process of randomly assigning powers is done a set number of times and only the valid solutions where no lenses crash are considered for further use. The valid designs are plotted over different design criteria and can then be selected to retrieve the first order design parameters. For the intermediate design process, the software displays lens specifications and diagnostic results across zoom for the entire lens as well as the individual groups. Systematic evaluation of the intermediate design steps is useful in determining how to proceed and improve the design. The design process is described for two different zoom lenses to show the efficiency and utility of these tools. The two zoom lenses are a 16x surveillance camera zoom lens working in the visible and a 3X zoom lens working in the visible and short wave infrared. The design procedure for these lenses covers finding the paraxial solutions to evaluating the lens for further improvement.
Electron beam resists develop a surface potential during exposure, which can lead to image placement
errors of up to several nanometers  and result in poor CD uniformity and image quality. To address this
problem, we have synthesized a conductive polymer that can be coated onto a resist. Our conductive
discharge layer (CDL) is water-soluble and is easily removed during subsequent processing steps.
Having established that our material has a low enough resistance for full charge dissipation, we have carried
out extensive tests to evaluate the impact of the layer on lithographic performance. We will report these
findings, which include measurements of the effect of the CDL on the resolution, roughness, and speed of