In this work, the angular light output enhancements of LEDs were investigated from the spontaneous emission and light scattering of devices with different photonic crystal (PhC) geometries. The emitted photon coupled into a leaky mode is differentiated by the manipulation of the quality factor in various spatial frequencies. Therefore, light extraction in this light-emitting device is determined by the modal extraction lengths and the quality factor obtained from the measured photonic bands. Furthermore, the higher- and lower-order mode spontaneous emissions are affected by the nonradiative process in the PhC structures with different periods. In our cases, the photonic crystal device with the largest period of 500 nm exhibits the highest lower-order mode extraction and quality factor. As a result, a self-collimation behavior toward the surface-normal is demonstrated in the 3D far-field pattern of such a device. We conclude that, with the coherent light scattering from the PhC region, the spontaneous emission of the material and spatial behavior of the extracted mode can be both managed by the proper design of the device.
We have recently demonstrated that ultra high resolution of angular measurement down to 10<sup>-6</sup> degree can be achieved via surface-plasmon-resonance heterodyne interferometry, in which the phase difference between p- and s- polarized reflected waves is monitored as a function of the incident angle. Here we give a brief summary of this technique and the rationale based on which such a measurement is possible. As a further study, we have also investigated, via simulation, how the change in environmental temperature will affect the resolution limit of this very versatile technique.