Transmission properties of transverse magnetic light through periodic sub-wavelength slit apertures on a metallic film, behind which is another planar metallic film, are studied by finite-difference-time-domain method with constant periodicity and slit width. The result shows that the transmitted energy is strongly correlated to both the thickness of the metallic grating and the distance between such two films at a specific wavelength. The thickness of the grating acts as a filter that allows specific wavelengths to go through the slits, while the distance of dual metallic film dominantly determines a constructive or destructive interference between the transmitted light through the slits and the reflected wave from the back film. Besides, a strong vibration in the transmission spectrum as a function of the grating thickness is interestingly observed, which can be interpreted by the resonance of the surface plasmons of the front and the back metallic films.
Impact ionization in charge layer and multiplication layer of InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with separated absorption, grading, charge and multiplication structures has been studied by two-dimensional simulations using Silvaco TCAD. Special attention has been paid to the charge layer and multiplication layer with different thicknesses and doping concentrations in order to optimize the structure for low band discontinuities and an appropriate electric field distribution. Band-edge profile calculations as well as current–voltage characteristic and electric field results of the APDs will be discussed in this article.
In this study, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a picosecond pulse laser at 850 nm. To generate picosecond laser pulse, we operate a vertical cavity surface emitting laser under a gain-switched pulsed mode, which is realized by driving it with our home-made drive circuit based on field programmable gate array and radio frequency devices. The obtained laser pulses are with the pulse width of less than 675 ps, and with repetition rate from single shot to megahertz. On the other hand, based on our gain-switched pulsed laser, we design and realize a cost-effective optical time domain reflectometry prototype equipment with photon counting technology for monitoring the healthy condition of aeronautical fiber. Our prototype equipment achieves a spatial resolution of less than 9 cm, and a dynamic range of around 18 dB above the noise floor. Such prototype equipment has already been employed to monitor an optical cable with 32 fiber channels on plane.
A hybrid integrated photodetector consisting of array of reach-through avalanche photodiodes and readout integrated circuit chips was developed. The reach-through avalanche photodiode model with separate layer of absorption, charge and multiplication are elaborated. This kind of photodiode is optimized for detection of 905 nm radiation and in that range achieve excellent parameters – high gain, low noise and high speed. Next, the design and properties of the readout integrated circuit with a new-type regulated cascode circuit configuration are discussed. The linear array reach-through avalanche photodiode and readout integrated circuit chips were integrated into a photodetector by using bonder-leading welding techniques. The integrated detector demonstrates the pulse responsivity R ≥ 1×10<sup>6</sup> V/W, the noise equivalent power NEP ≤ 5 pW/Hz<sup>1/2</sup>, and the rise time tr ≤ 3 ns, under pulsed laser irradiation at 905 nm, 100 ns and 10 KHz.
In this study, we analyze the characteristics of a micro-cavity laser with the size one-order larger than the lasing wavelength by employing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methodology. The simulation results have been obtained under the conditions with different materials and structures of the oscillator. It is seen that the power leakage from the side wall depends on the material and structure of a micro-cavity laser system. The wall material of the micro-cavity is assumed to be BK7 glass, silver, and copper, respectively. The results indicate that the side power leakage with the wall material of BK7 glass is much more serious than those with the wall materials of silver and copper. In addition, it is demonstrated that the cavity structure is also a key factor that influences the output features of such a laser.