Point laser probes (PLPs) with charge-coupled device (CCD) are widely used in industry engineering. However, the distance detection accuracy is significantly affected by incident angle, which limits the application in free-form surface measurement. To analyze the influence of incident angle, a reference distance is first determined under normal incidence. Then the detection errors are estimated by the relative differences of non-zero incident angles from the reference. Based on laser ray tracking strategy and superposition principle, an intensity spot is formed on the detector plane. The image deviation is assessed using a robust subpixel algorithm. Therefore the distance detection error can be numerically predicted. As a comparison, a precision calibration system is set up, which is composed of CCD-PLP, data card, human manual interface, pulse controller, step motor driver, and calibration device. A calibration procedure was programmed on the upper PC. Thus data sampling, angle control, and error assessment can be achieved. A series of prediction and calibration tests covering angle range from −55 deg to 55 deg were conducted on a five-axis machining center. The results indicate that the trend of calibration was quite coincident with that predicted. The distance detection error has an approximate linear function of incident angle.