Infrared sky background level is an important parameter of grounded infrared astronomy observations, which should be firstly measured in a good infrared observatory site, and only the site with low background level is suitable for infrared observations. Infrared sky background level can provide background data for the design of related infrared instruments. However, there is no such data available for major sites in China. Based on the requirement, In order to supplement the current site survey data and guide the design of future infrared instruments, a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor (MNISBM) based on an InSb sensor is designed in this paper. The MNISBM consists of optical system, mechanical structure and control system, detector and cooler, high gain readout electronic system, operational software. It is completed and carried out an experimental measurement in the laboratory. The result shows that the sensitivity of the MNISBM meets the requirements of the measurement of near-infrared sky background level.
The LAMOST completed its first five years of operation in June 2017, and 9 million low resolution spectra are obtained. The spectrographs have been upgraded in 2017, and the resolution can reach up to 7500(with 2/3 slit). In the midresolution mode, the wavelength can cover 495nm-535nm(blue band) and 630nm-680nm(red band). The LAMOST will carry out the middle resolution spectroscopic survey in September 2018, and 3 million middle resolution spectra will be obtained. This paper describes the requirements, optical design and mechanical design of the LAMOST-MRS (the LAMOST middle resolution spectrograph)
The Next Generation Palomar Spectrograph (NGPS) is designed for Cassergrain focus of the Hale 200-inch telescope to replace the old Palomar Double Spectrograph (DBSP). NGPS have higher throughput, efficiency and realities spectrograph. NGPS is designed as three channels to cover the wavelength from 365nm to 1050nm with no spectral gap and delivers a resolving power with a 1.5” slit exceeding R=1800 overall the observable range. The peak efficiency of the whole throughput (from sky to detector) at the wavelength is 35.3% which is consistent with throughput achieved by some of the world’s most efficient spectrographs.
High accuracy radial velocity measurement isn’t only one of the most important methods for detecting earth-like
Exoplanets, but also one of the main developing fields of astronomical observation technologies in future. Externally
dispersed interferometry (EDI) generates a kind of particular interference spectrum through combining a fixed-delay
interferometer with a medium-resolution spectrograph. It effectively enhances radial velocity measuring accuracy by
several times. Another further study on multi-delay interferometry was gradually developed after observation success
with only a fixed-delay, and its relative instrumentation makes more impressive performance in near Infrared band.
Multi-delay is capable of giving wider coverage from low to high frequency in Fourier field so that gives a higher
accuracy in radial velocity measurement. To study on this new technology and verify its feasibility at Guo Shoujing
telescope (LAMOST), an experimental instrumentation with single fixed-delay named MESSI has been built and tested
at our lab. Another experimental study on multi-delay spectral interferometry given here is being done as well. Basically,
this multi-delay experimental system is designed in according to the similar instrument named TEDI at Palomar
observatory and the preliminary test result of MESSI. Due to existence of LAMOST spectrograph at lab, a multi-delay
interferometer design actually dominates our work. It’s generally composed of three parts, respectively science optics,
phase-stabilizing optics and delay-calibrating optics. To switch different fixed delays smoothly during observation, the
delay-calibrating optics is possibly useful to get high repeatability during switching motion through polychromatic
interferometry. Although this metrology is based on white light interferometry in theory, it’s different that integrates all
of interference signals independently obtained by different monochromatic light in order to avoid dispersion error caused
by broad band in big optical path difference (OPD).
Exoplanet detection, a highlight in the current astronomy, will be part of puzzle in astronomical and astrophysical future,
which contains dark energy, dark matter, early universe, black hole, galactic evolution and so on. At present, most of the
detected Exoplanets are confirmed through methods of radial velocity and transit. Guo shoujing Telescope well known
as LAMOST is an advanced multi-object spectral survey telescope equipped with 4000 fibers and 16 low resolution fiber
spectrographs. To explore its potential in different astronomical activities, a new radial velocity method named
Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is applied to serve Exoplanet detection through combining a fixed-delay
interferometer with the existing spectrograph in medium spectral resolution mode (R=5,000-10,000). This new
technology has an impressive feature to enhance radial velocity measuring accuracy of the existing spectrograph through
installing a fixed-delay interferometer in front of spectrograph. This way produces an interference spectrum with higher
sensitivity to Doppler Effect by interference phase and fixed delay. This relative system named Multi-object Exoplanet
Search Spectral Interferometer (MESSI) is composed of a few parts, including a pair of multi-fiber coupling sockets, a
remote control iodine subsystem, a multi-object fixed delay interferometer and the existing spectrograph. It covers from
500 to 550 nm and simultaneously observes up to 21 stars. Even if it’s an experimental instrument at present, it’s still
well demonstrated in paper that how MESSI does explore an effective way to build its own system under the existing
condition of LAMOST and get its expected performance for multi-object Exoplanet detection, especially instrument
stability and its special data reduction. As a result of test at lab, inside temperature of its instrumental chamber is stable
in a range of ±0.5degree Celsius within 12 hours, and the direct instrumental stability without further observation
correction is equivalent to be ±50m/s every 20mins.
The quality of the range image obtained by laser radar will directly influence the target profile reconstruction and the
target identification, and the quality of the range image is mainly determined by the parameters of laser radar system. As
a result, this paper concentrates on discussing the effect of laser radar's parameters on the quality of range image. To
evaluate the quality of range image quantitatively, two parameters, the mean squared error of range (R-MSE) and peak
signal noise ratio of range (R-PSNR), are introduced and a simulation program is developed to study the influence of
system's parameters on the range imaging quality. The results show that for a given pulse width, there has an optimal
bandwidth and threshold level, that make the range image has better image quality. Above results have important
significance to optimize the parameter design of laser radar.