Human retina is different from other ocular tissues, such as cornea, crystalline lens and vitreous because of high scattering performance. As an anisotropic tissue, we cannot neglect its impact on the polarization state of the scattered light. In this paper, Mie scattering and radiative transfer theory are applied to analyze the polarization state of backscattered light from four types of retinal tissues, including neural retina, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE), choroid and sclera. The results show that the most backscattered zones in different depths have almost the same electrical fields of Jones vector, which represents the polarization state of light, whether neural retina layer is under normal incidence or oblique incidence. Very little change occurs in the polarization of backscattered light compared to that of the incident light. Polarization distribution of backward scattered light from neural retina layer doesn’t make apparent effects on polarization phase shifting in spectral domain OCT because its thickness is far less than photon mean free path, while other retinal tissues do not meet this rule.
There exists three variables in the radiative transfer equation based on dynamic energy conservation, including polar
angle, azimuth angle and normalized penetrate depth. In order to solute this equation with double integral on polar angle
and azimuth angle, the first step is to introduce proper method to isolate azimuthal dependency from polar angle. In this
paper, we propose a novel phase matrix expansion with Zernike polynomials, which represents the probability of
scattering events. The results show that it can provide a new improved strategy for the solution of radiative transfer
equations in Discrete-Ordinate Method (DOM), which is different from commonly used Fourier series and Legendre
polynomials expansion and we make conclusion that there are three principles for polynomials’ selection, including
orthogonal performance, special theorem for polynomial derivation and triangle function generation.