The radiative reflective properties of a calibration standard rough surface were simulated by ray tracing and the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results have been used to compute the reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) of metal surfaces and have been compared with experimental measurements. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement.
Industrial automation has developed rapidly in the past decades. Customized fabrications and short production time require flexible and high speed inspection systems. Based on these requirements, optical surface inspection systems (OSIS) as efficient and cheap systems for detecting surface defects and none-defects becomes more and more important. To achieve a high recognition rate, huge amounts of image data of defects need to be stored. We introduce a virtual surface defect rendering method to obtain large amount of defect images. In this paper, the ray tracing methods are applied to realistically simulate camera images in OSIS. We used three different bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) rendering models to describe the scattering between collimated white light and aluminum materials.
We investigate the propagation of a four-dimensional ray grid through freeform optical systems. By analyzing the linear and nonlinear part of this ray-mapping at each surface we can quantify surface aberration contributions within freeform systems.