Spontaneous brain activity is an important biomarker for various neurological and psychological conditions and can be measured using resting functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rfMRI). Since brain activity during resting is spontaneous, it is not possible to directly compare rfMRI time-courses across subjects. Moreover, the spatial configuration of functionally specialized brain regions can vary across subjects throughout the cortex limiting our ability to make precise spatial comparisons. We describe a new approach to jointly align and synchronize fMRI data in space and time, across a group of subjects. We build on previously described methods for inter-subject spatial “Hyper-Alignment” and temporal synchronization through the “BrainSync” transform. We first describe BrainSync Alignment (BSA), a group-based extension of the pair-wise BrainSync transform, that jointly synchronizes resting or task fMRI data across time for multiple subjects. We then explore the combination of BSA with Response Hyper-Alignment (RHA) and compare with Connectivity Hyper-Alignment (CHA), an alternative approach to spatial alignment based on resting fMRI. The result of applying RHA and BSA is both to produce improved functional spatial correspondence across a group of subjects, and to align their time-series so that, even for spontaneous resting data, we see highly correlated temporal dynamics at homologous locations across the group. These spatiotemporally aligned data can then be used as an atlas in future applications. We validate these transfer functions by applying them to z-score maps of an independent dataset and calculating inter-subject correlation. The results show that RHA can be calculated from rfMRI and have comparable output with CHA by leveraging BSA. Moreover, through calculation and application to task fMRI-based spatial transformations on an independent dataset, we show that the combination of RHA and BSA produces improved spatial functional alignment significantly relative to either RHA or CHA alone.
Anatomical T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging collected during resting (rfMRI) are promising markers that offer insight into structure and function of the human brain. The objective of this work is to explore the use of a deep learning neural network to predict cognitive performance scores and ADHD indices in a group of ADHD and control subjects. First, we processed the rfMRI and MRI data of subjects using the BrainSuite fMRI Processing (BFP) pipeline to perform anatomical and functional preprocessing. This produces for each subject fMRI and geometric (anatomical) features represented in a standardized grayordinate system. The geometric and functional cortical data corresponding to the two hemispheres were then transformed to 128x128 multichannel images and input to a convolutional component of the neural network. Subcortical data were presented in a standard vector form and input to a standard input layer of the network. The neural network was implemented in Python using the Keras library with a TensorFlow backend. Training was performed on 168 images with 90 images used for testing. We observed significant correlation between predicted and actual values of the indices tested: Performance IQ: 0.47; Verbal IQ: 0.41, ADHD: 0.57. Comparing these values to those from network trained on functional-only and structural-only data, we saw that rfMRI is more informative than MRI, but the two modalities are highly complementary in terms of predicting these indices.