We present high spatial density, multi-modal, parallel-plate Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) imaging systems for the purpose of breast tumor detection. One hybrid instrument provides time domain (TD) and continuous wave (CW) DOT at 64 source fiber positions. The TD diffuse optical spectroscopy with PMT- detection produces low-resolution images of absolute tissue scattering and absorption while the spatially dense array of CCD-coupled detector fibers (108 detectors) provides higher-resolution CW images of relative tissue optical properties. Reconstruction of the tissue optical properties, along with total hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation, is performed using the TOAST software suite. Comparison of the spatially-dense DOT images and MR images allows for a robust validation of DOT against an accepted clinical modality. Additionally, the structural information from co-registered MR images is used as a spatial prior to improve the quality of the functional optical images and provide more accurate quantification of the optical and hemodynamic properties of tumors. We also present an optical-only imaging system that provides frequency domain (FD) DOT at 209 source positions with full CCD detection and incorporates optical fringe projection profilometry to determine the breast boundary. This profilometry serves as a spatial constraint, improving the quality of the DOT reconstructions while retaining the benefits of an optical-only device. We present initial images from both human subjects and phantoms to display the utility of high spatial density data and multi-modal information in DOT reconstruction with the two systems.
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has been employed to derive spatial maps of physiologically important chromophores in the human breast, but the fidelity of these images is often compromised by boundary effects such as those due to the chest wall. We explore the image quality in fast, data-intensive analytic and algebraic linear DOT reconstructions of phantoms with subcentimeter target features and large absorptive regions mimicking the chest wall. Experiments demonstrate that the chest wall phantom can introduce severe image artifacts. We then show how these artifacts can be mitigated by exclusion of data affected by the chest wall. We also introduce and demonstrate a linear algebraic reconstruction method well suited for very large data sets in the presence of a chest wall.
In this paper, we describe a novel clinical breast diffuse optical tomography (DOT) instrument for CW and RF data acquisition in transmission geometry. It is designed to be able to acquire a massive amount of data in a short amount of time available for patient measurement by using a 209-channel galvo-based fast optical switch
and a fast electron-multiplying CCD. In addition to CW measurements, RF measurements were made by using an electro-optic modulator for source modulation and a gain-modulated image intensifier for detection. The patient bed has many clinically-oriented features as well as improved data acquisition rate and transmission RF
measurement capability. A series of preliminary results will be shown, including a heterodyne RF experiment
for bulk property measurement and a CW experiment for 3D imaging. In order to deal with large data size, a
linear reconstruction algorithm that exploits separability of the inverse problem in Fourier domain is used for
fast and memory-load-free reconstruction.