SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) is a medium resolution (~4500) wide-band (0.35 - 2.0 μm) spectrograph which passed the Final Design Review in 2018. The instrument is planned to be installed at the NTT in La Silla and it is mainly composed by five different optomechanical subsystems (Common Path, NIR spectrograph, UV-VIS spectrograph, Camera, and Calibration) and other mechanical subsystems (Interface flange, Platform, cable corotator, and cooling). It is currently in the procurement and integration phase. In this paper we present the post-FDR modifications in the mechanical design due to the various iterations with the manufacturers and the actual procurement status. The last part describes the strategy used to keep under control the mechanical interfaces between the subsystems.
SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) is the new medium resolution wide-band spectrograph to be installed at the 3.6m New Technology Telescope (NTT) in La Silla. SOXS will offer simultaneous wavelength coverage from 0.35 to 2.0 μm and will be dedicated to the study of transient and variable sources. While nominal optical performances of the system were presented in previous proceedings (Zanmar Sanchez et al. 2018), we here present a set of further analyses aimed to identify and quantify optical effects, due to changes in temperature and orientation of the instrument during alignment and operations.
SOXS will be the new spectroscopic facility for the ESO NTT telescope able to cover the optical and NIR bands by using two different arms: the UV-VIS (350-850 nm), and the NIR (800-2000 nm). In this article, we describe the development status of the visible camera cryostat, the architecture of the acquisition system and the progress in the electronic design. The UV-VIS detector system is based on a CCD detector 44-82 from e2v, a custom detector head, coupled with the ESO continuous flow cryostats (CFC), a custom cooling system, based on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), and the New General Controller (NGC) developed by ESO. This paper outlines the development status of the system, describes the design of the different parts that make up the UV- VIS arm and is accompanied by a series of information describing the SOXS design solutions in the mechanics and in the electronics parts. The first tests of the detector system with the UV-VIS camera will be shown.
The forthcoming SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) will be a new spectroscopic facility for the ESO New Technology Telescope in La Silla, focused on transient events and able to cover both the UV-VIS and NIR bands. The instrument passed the Final Design Review in 2018 and is currently in manufacturing and integration phase. This paper is focused on the assembly and testing of the instrument control electronics, which will manage all the motorized functions, alarms, sensors, and electric interlocks. The electronics is hosted in two main control cabinets, divided in several subracks that are assembled to ensure easy accessibility and transportability, to simplify test, integration and maintenance. Both racks are equipped with independent power supply distribution and have their own integrated cooling systems. This paper shows the assembly strategy, reports on the development status and describes the tests performed to verify the system before the integration into the whole instrument.
SOXS is a new spectrograph for the New Technology Telescope (NTT), optimized for transient and variable objects, covering a wide wavelength range from 350 to 2000 nm. SOXS is equipped with a calibration unit that will be used to remove the instrument signatures and to provide wavelength calibration to the data. The
calibration unit will employ seven calibration lamps: a quartz-tungsten-halogen and a deuterium lamp for the that will be used to remove the instrument signatures and to provide wavelength calibration to the data. The calibration unit will employ seven calibration lamps: a quartz-tungsten-halogen and a deuterium lamp for the flat-field correction, a ThAr lamp and four pencil-style rare-gas lamps for the wavelength calibration. The light from the calibration lamps is injected into the spectrograph mimicking the f/11 input beam of the NTT, by using an integrating sphere and a custom doublet. The oversized illumination patch covers the length of the spectrograph slit homogeneously, with < 1% variation. The optics also supports the second mode of the unit, the star-simulator mode that emulates a point source by utilizing a pinhole mask. Switching between the direct illumination and pinhole modes is performed by a linear stage. A safety interlock switches off the main power when the lamp box cover is removed, preventing accidental UV exposure to the service personnel. All power supplies and control modules are located in an electronic rack at a distance from the telescope platform. In this presentation we describe the optical, mechanical, and electrical designs of the SOXS calibration unit, and report the status of development in which the unit is currently in the test and verification stage.
SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) will be the new medium resolution (R∼4500 for 100 slit), high-efficiency, wide band spectrograph for the ESO NTT at La Silla, optimized for classification and follow-up of transient events. SOXS will simultaneously cover UV-optical and NIR bands (0.35-2.00 micron) using two different arms and a pre-slit Common Path feeding system. The instrument will be also equipped by a Calibration Unit and an Acquisition Camera (AC) System. In this paper we present the final opto-mechanical design for the AC System and we describe its development status. The project is currently in manufacturing and integration phases.
We present here the development status of the NIR spectrograph of the Son Of X-Shooter (SOXS) instrument, for the ESO/NTT telescope at La Silla (Chile). SOXS is a R~4,500 mean resolution spectrograph, with a simultaneously coverage from about 0.35 to 2.00 μm. It will be mounted at the Nasmyth focus of the NTT. The two UV-VIS-NIR wavelength ranges will be covered by two separated arms. The NIR spectrograph is a fully cryogenic echelle-dispersed spectrograph, working in the range 0.80-2.00 μm, equipped with a Hawaii H2RG IR array from Teledyne. The whole spectrograph will be cooled down to about 150 K (but the array at 40 K), to lower the thermal background, and equipped with a thermal filter to block any thermal radiation above 2.0 μm. In this work, we will show the advanced phase of integration of the NIR spectrograph.
We present the development of the End-to-End simulator for the SOXS instrument at the ESO-NTT 3.5-m telescope. SOXS will be a spectroscopic facility, made by two arms high efficiency spectrographs, able to cover the spectral range 350-2000 nm with resolving power R≈4500. The E2E model allows to simulate the propagation of photons starting from the scientific target of interest up to the detectors. The outputs of the simulator are synthetic frames, which will be mainly exploited for optimizing the pipeline development and possibly assisting for proper alignment and integration phases in laboratory and at the telescope. In this paper, we will detail the architecture of the simulator and the computational model, which are strongly characterized by modularity and flexibility. Synthetic spectral formats, related to different seeing and observing conditions, and calibration frames to be ingested by the pipeline are also presented.
The Son-Of-X-shooter (SOXS) is a dual arm spectrograph (UV-VIS and NIR) and Acquisition Camera (AC) due to mounted on the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6m New Technology Telescope (NTT) in La Silla. Designed to simultaneously cover the optical and NIR wavelength range from 350-2050 nm, the instrument will be dedicated to the study of transient and variable events with many Target of Opportunity requests expected. The goal of the SOXS Data Reduction pipeline is to use calibration data to remove all instrument signatures from the SOXS scientific data frames for each of the supported instrument modes, convert this data into physical units and deliver them with their associated error bars to the ESO Science Archive Facility (SAF) as Phase 3 compliant science data products, all within 30 minutes. The primary reduced product will be a detrended, wavelength and flux calibrated, telluric corrected 1D spectrum with UV-VIS + NIR arms stitched together. The pipeline will also generate Quality Control (QC) metrics to monitor telescope, instrument and detector health. The pipeline is written in Python 3 and has been built with an agile development philosophy that includes adaptive planning and evolutionary development. The pipeline is to be used by the SOXS consortium and the general user community that may want to perform tailored processing of SOXS data. Test driven development has been used throughout the build using ‘extreme’ mock data. We aim for the pipeline to be easy to install and extensively and clearly documented.
The point spread function reconstruction (PSF-R) capability is a deliverable of the MICADO@ESO-ELT project. The PSF-R team works on the implementation of the instrument software devoted to reconstruct the point spread function (PSF), independently of the science data, using adaptive optics (AO) telemetry data, both for Single Conjugate (SCAO) and Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) mode of the MICADO camera and spectrograph. The PSF-R application will provide reconstructed PSFs through an archive querying system to restore the telemetry data synchronous to each science frame that MICADO will generate. Eventually, the PSF-R software will produce the output according to user specifications. The PSF-R service will support the state-of-the-art scientific analysis of the MICADO imaging and spectroscopic data.
SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) is a single object spectrograph, characterized by offering a wide simultaneous spectral coverage from U- to H-band, built by an international consortium for the 3.6-m ESO New Technology Telescope at the La Silla Observatory, in the Southern part of the Chilean Atacama Desert. The consortium is focussed on a clear scientific goal: the spectrograph will observe all kind of transient and variable sources discovered by different surveys with a highly flexible schedule, updated daily, based on the Target of Opportunity concept. It will provide a key spectroscopic partner to any kind of imaging survey, becoming one of the premier transient follow-up instruments in the Southern hemisphere. SOXS will study a mixture of transients encompassing all distance scales and branches of astronomy, including fast alerts (such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational waves), mid-term alerts (such as supernovae and X-ray transients), and fixed-time events (such as the close-by passage of a minor planet or exoplanets). It will also have the scope to observe active galactic nuclei and blazars, tidal disruption events, fast radio bursts, and more. Besides of the consortium programs on guaranteed time, the instrument is offered to the ESO community for any kind of astrophysical target. The project has passed the Final Design Review and is currently in manufacturing and integration phase. This paper describes the development status of the project.
SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) is a forthcoming instrument for ESO-NTT, mainly dedicated to the spectroscopic study of transient events and is currently starting the AIT (Assembly, Integration, and Test) phase. It foresees a visible spectrograph, a near-Infrared (NIR) spectrograph, and an acquisition camera for light imaging and secondary guiding. The optimal setup and the monitoring of SOXS are carried out with a set of software-controlled motorized components and sensors. The instrument control software (INS) also manages the observation and calibration procedures, as well as maintenance and self-test operations. The architecture of INS, based on the latest release of the VLT Software (VLT2019), has been frozen; the code development is in an advanced state for what concerns supported components and observation procedures, which run in simulation. In this proceeding we present the INS current status, focusing in particular on the ongoing efforts in the support of two non-standard, “special” devices. The first special device is the piezoelectric slit exchanger for the NIR spectrograph; the second special device is the piezoelectric tip-tilt corrector used for active compensation of mechanical flexures of the instrument. For both, which are commanded via a serial line, specific driver and simulators have been implemented.
Son Of X-Shooter (SOXS) is a double-armed (UV-VIS, NIR) spectrograph designed to be mounted at the ESO-NTT in La Silla, now in its Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) phase. The instrument is designed following a modular approach so that each sub-system can be integrated in parallel before their assembly at system level. INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova will deliver the Common Path (CP) sub-system, which represents the backbone of the entire instrument. In this paper, we describe the foreseen operation for the CP alignment and we report some results already achieved, showing that we envisaged the suitable setup and the strategy to meet the opto-mechanical requirements.
Son of X-Shooter (SOXS) will be a high-efficiency spectrograph with a mean Resolution-Slit product of ~4500 over the entire band capable of simultaneously observing the complete spectral range 350-2000 nm. It consists of three scientific arms (the UV-VIS Spectrograph, the NIR Spectrograph, and the Acquisition Camera) connected by the Common Path system to the NTT, and the Calibration Unit. The Common Path is the backbone of the instrument and the interface to the NTT Nasmyth focus flange. The instrument project went through the Final Design Review in 2018 and is currently in Assembly Integration and test (AIT) Phase. This paper outlines the observing modes of SOXS and the efficiency of each subsystem and the laboratory test plan to evaluate it.
We present our progress on the UV-VIS arm of Son Of X-Shooter (SOXS), a new spectrograph for the NTT. Our design splits the spectral band into four sub-bands that are imaged onto a single detector. Each band uses an optimized high efficiency grating that operates in 1st order (m=1). In our previous paper we presented the concept and preliminary design. SOXS passed a Final Design Review in July 2018 and is well into the construction phase. Here we present the final design, performances of key manufactured elements, and the progress in the assembly. Based on the as-built elements, the expected throughput of the visual arm will be < 55%. This paper is accompanied by a series of contributions describing the progress made on the SOXS instrument.
Son Of X-Shooter (SOXS) is the new instrument for the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) in La Silla site (Chile) devised for the spectroscopic follow-up of transient sources. SOXS is composed by two medium resolution spectrographs able to cover the 350-2000 nm interval. An Acquisition Camera will provide a light imaging capability in the visible band. We present the procedure foreseen for the Assembly, Integration and Test activities (AIT) of SOXS that will be carried out at sub-systems level at various consortium partner premises and at system level both in Europe and Chile.
SOXS (Son of X-shooter) is a wide band, medium resolution spectrograph for the ESO NTT with a first light expected in early 2021. The instrument will be composed by five semi-independent subsystems: a pre-slit Common Path (CP), an Acquisition Camera (AC), a Calibration Unit (CU), the NIR spectrograph, and the UV-VIS spectrograph. In this paper, we present the mechanical design of the subsystems, the kinematic mounts developed to simplify the final integration procedure and the maintenance. The concept of the CP and NIR optomechanical mounts developed for a simple pre- alignment procedure and for the thermal compensation of reflective and refractive elements will be shown.
SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) will be a spectrograph for the ESO NTT telescope capable to cover the optical and NIR bands, based on the heritage of the X-Shooter at the ESO-VLT. SOXS will be built and run by an international consortium, carrying out rapid and longer term Target of Opportunity requests on a variety of astronomical objects. SOXS will observe all kind of transient and variable sources from different surveys. These will be a mixture of fast alerts (e.g. gamma-ray bursts, gravitational waves, neutrino events), mid-term alerts (e.g. supernovae, X-ray transients), fixed time events (e.g. close-by passage of minor bodies). While the focus is on transients and variables, still there is a wide range of other astrophysical targets and science topics that will benefit from SOXS. The design foresees a spectrograph with a Resolution-Slit product ≈ 4500, capable of simultaneously observing over the entire band the complete spectral range from the U- to the H-band. The limiting magnitude of R~20 (1 hr at S/N~10) is suited to study transients identified from on-going imaging surveys. Light imaging capabilities in the optical band (grizy) are also envisaged to allow for multi-band photometry of the faintest transients. This paper outlines the status of the project, now in Final Design Phase.
Son of X-Shooter (SOXS) will be a high-efficiency spectrograph with a mean Resolution-Slit product of 4500 (goal 5000) over the entire band capable of simultaneously observing the complete spectral range 350-2000 nm. It consists of three scientific arms (the UV-VIS Spectrograph, the NIR Spectrograph and the Acquisition Camera) connected by the Common Path system to the NTT and the Calibration Unit. The Common Path is the backbone of the instrument and the interface to the NTT Nasmyth focus flange. The light coming from the focus of the telescope is split by the common path optics into the two different optical paths in order to feed the two spectrographs and the acquisition camera. The instrument project went through the Preliminary Design Review in 2017 and is currently in Final Design Phase (with FDR in July 2018). This paper outlines the status of the Common Path system and is accompanied by a series of contributions describing the SOXS design and properties after the instrument Preliminary Design Review.
SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) is a unique spectroscopic facility that will operate at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in La Silla from 2021 onward. The spectrograph will be able to cover simultaneously the UV-VIS and NIR bands exploiting two different arms and a Common Path feeding system. We present the design of the SOXS instrument control electronics. The electronics controls all the movements, alarms, cabinet temperatures, and electric interlocks of the instrument. We describe the main design concept. We decided to follow the ESO electronic design guidelines to minimize project time and risks and to simplify system maintenance. The design envisages Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) industrial components (e.g. Beckhoff PLC and EtherCAT fieldbus modules) to obtain a modular design and to increase the overall reliability and maintainability. Preassembled industrial motorized stages are adopted allowing for high precision assembly standards and a high reliability. The electronics is kept off-board whenever possible to reduce thermal issues and instrument weight and to increase the accessibility for maintenance purpose. The instrument project went through the Preliminary Design Review in 2017 and is currently in Final Design Phase (with FDR in July 2018). This paper outlines the status of the work and is part of a series of contributions describing the SOXS design and properties after the instrument Preliminary Design Review.
An overview of the optical design for the SOXS spectrograph is presented. SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) is the new wideband, medium resolution (R>4500) spectrograph for the ESO 3.58m NTT telescope expected to start observations in 2021 at La Silla. The spectroscopic capabilities of SOXS are assured by two different arms. The UV-VIS (350-850 nm) arm is based on a novel concept that adopts the use of 4 ion-etched high efficiency transmission gratings. The NIR (800- 2000 nm) arm adopts the ‘4C’ design (Collimator Correction of Camera Chromatism) successfully applied in X-Shooter. Other optical sub-systems are the imaging Acquisition Camera, the Calibration Unit and a pre-slit Common Path. We describe the optical design of the five sub-systems and report their performance in terms of spectral format, throughput and optical quality. This work is part of a series of contributions1-9 describing the SOXS design and properties as it is about to face the Final Design Review.
SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) is a new spectrograph for the ESO NTT telescope, currently in the final design phase. The main instrument goal is to allow the characterization of transient sources based on alerts. It will cover from near-infrared to visible bands with a spectral resolution of R ∼ 4500 using two separate, wavelength-optimized spectrographs. A visible camera, primarily intended for target acquisition and secondary guiding, will also provide a scientific “light” imaging mode. In this paper we present the current status of the design of the SOXS instrument control software, which is in charge of controlling all instrument functions and detectors, coordinating the execution of exposures, and implementing all observation, calibration and maintenance procedures. Given the extensive experience of the SOXS consortium in the development of instruments for the VLT, we decided to base the design of the Control System on the same standards, both for hardware and software control. We illustrate the control network, the instrument functions and detectors to be controlled, the overall design of SOXS Instrument Software (INS) and its main components. Then, we provide details about the control software for the most SOXS-specific features: control of the COTS-based imaging camera, the flexures compensation system and secondary guiding.
SOXS (Son of X-Shooter) will be the new medium resolution (R~4500 for a 1 arcsec slit), high-efficiency, wide band spectrograph for the ESO-NTT telescope on La Silla. It will be able to cover simultaneously optical and NIR bands (350-2000nm) using two different arms and a pre-slit Common Path feeding system. SOXS will provide an unique facility to follow up any kind of transient event with the best possible response time in addition to high efficiency and availability. Furthermore, a Calibration Unit and an Acquisition Camera System with all the necessary relay optics will be connected to the Common Path sub-system. The Acquisition Camera, working in optical regime, will be primarily focused on target acquisition and secondary guiding, but will also provide an imaging mode for scientific photometry. In this work we give an overview of the Acquisition Camera System for SOXS with all the different functionalities. The optical and mechanical design of the system are also presented together with the preliminary performances in terms of optical quality, throughput, magnitude limits and photometric properties.
The Son Of X-Shooter (SOXS)1 is a medium resolution spectrograph (R ~ 4500) proposed for the ESO 3.6m NTT. We present the optical design of the UV-VIS arm of SOXS which employs high efficiency ion-etched gratings used in first order (m = 1) as the main dispersers. The spectral band is split into four channels which are directed to individual gratings, and imaged simultaneously by a single three-element catadioptric camera. The expected throughput of our design is > 60% including contingency. The SOXS collaboration expects first light in early 2021. This paper is one of several papers presented in these proceedings2-10 describing the full SOXS instrument.
We present the NIR spectrograph of the Son Of XShooter (SOXS) instrument for the ESO-NTT telescope at La Silla (Chile). SOXS is a R~4,500 mean resolution spectrograph, with a simultaneously coverage from about 0.35 to 2.00 μm. It will be mounted at the Nasmyth focus of the NTT. The two UV-VIS-NIR wavelength ranges will be covered by two separated arms. The NIR spectrograph is a fully criogenic echelle-dispersed spectrograph, working in the range 0.80- 2.00 μm, equipped with an Hawaii H2RG IR array from Teledyne, working at 40 K. The spectrograph will be cooled down to about 150 K, to lower the thermal background, and equipped with a thermal filter to block any thermal radiation above 2.0 μm. In this poster we will show the main characteristics of the instrument along with the expected performances at the telescope.
SOXS will be a unique spectroscopic facility for the ESO NTT telescope able to cover the optical and NIR bands thanks to two different arms: the UV-VIS (350-850 nm), and the NIR (800-1800 nm). In this article, we describe the design of the visible camera cryostat and the architecture of the acquisition system. The UV-VIS detector system is based on a e2v CCD 44-82, a custom detector head coupled with the ESO continuous flow cryostats (CFC) cooling system and the NGC CCD controller developed by ESO. This paper outlines the status of the system and describes the design of the different parts that made up the UV-VIS arm and is accompanied by a series of contributions describing the SOXS design solutions (Ref. 1–12).
LISS (Line Imager and Slit Spectrograph) is an imager and spectrograph equipped with a liquid crystal etalon and a low resolution grism. It is specialized to observe and map the emission and absorption lines of astronomical objects. A fully depleted and back illuminated 2K x 1K Hamamatsu CCD which has high sensitivity at redder wavelengths in optical bands enables this instrument to give a good performance in imaging and spectroscopic observations of emission lines such as [SIII]λλ 906.9/953.2 nm. We successfully carried out commissioning observations at the 1.6-m Pirka telescope of Hokkaido University in September/October 2012 and June/July 2013. In this paper, we describe the design and performance of LISS as well as its early observational results and future prospects.
A dichroic mirror/filter can divide light into two different wavelength bands by the principle of interference. We proposed to use more than a dozen of these mirrors, and make a simultaneous imager in many color bands. This also enables us to make a powerful spectrograph which uses many CCDs. We here report the first light of UT 15-band Dichroic-Mirror Camera. We successfully obtained the first light at the Cassegrain focus of the 1.5-m Kanata telescope in May 2007. We also carried out the second observing run in March 2008. Our instrument covers a wide wavelength range (390-930nm), and the field of view is about 4.5 arcmin in diameter with 0.27arcsec/pixel. Image quality was limited by seeing (~1.2 arcsec at best). We describe basic design, characteristics, and performance of our instrument as well as early observational results. Future prospect of dichroic mirrors instruments will also be briefly discussed.