Change detection is an important synthetic aperture radar (SAR) application, usually used to detect changes on the ground scene measurements in different moments in time. Traditionally, change detection algorithm (CDA) is mainly designed for two synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images retrieved at different instants. However, more images can be used to improve the algorithms performance, witch emerges as a research topic on SAR change detection. Image stack information can be treated as a data series over time and can be modeled by autoregressive (AR) models. Thus, we present some initial findings on SAR change detection based on image stack considering AR models. Applying AR model for each pixel position in the image stack, we obtained an estimated image of the ground scene which can be used as a reference image for CDA. The experimental results reveal that ground scene estimates by the AR models is accurate and can be used for change detection applications.
SAR processing usually requires very accurate navigation data, i.e. to form a focused image. The track must be measured within fractions of the centre wavelength. For high frequencies (e.g. X-band) this condition is too strict. Even with a cutting-edge motion measurement system, autofocus is a necessity. For low frequencies (e.g. VHF-band) a differential GPS (DGPS) is often an adequate solution (alone). However, for this case, it is actually conceivable to rely on autofocus capability over the motion measurement system. This paper describes how to form a SAR image without support from navigation data. That is within the scope of factorized geometrical autofocus (FGA). The FGA algorithm is a base-2 fast factorized back-projection realization with six free geometry parameters (per sub-aperture pair). These are tuned step-by-step until a sharp image is obtained. This procedure can compensate for an erroneous geometry (from a focus perspective). The FGA algorithm has been applied successfully on an ultra-wideband (UWB) data set, acquired at VHF-band by the CARABAS 3 system. The track is measured accurately by means of a DGPS. We however adopt and modify a basic geometry model. A linear equidistant flight path at fixed altitude is assumed and adjusted at several resolution levels. With this approach, we emulate a stand-alone processing chain without support from navigation data. The resulting FGA image is compared to a reference image and verified to be focused. This indicates that it is feasible to form a VHF-band SAR image without a motion measurement system.
The paper represents investigations on SAR image statistics and adaptive signal processing for change detection. The investigations show that the amplitude distributions of SAR images with possibly detected changes, that is retrieved with a linear subtraction operator, can approximately be represented by the probability density function of the Gaussian or normal distribution. This allows emerging the idea to use the available adaptive signal processing techniques for change detection. The experiments indicate the promising change detection results obtained with an adaptive line enhancer, one of the adaptive signal processing technique. The experiments are conducted on the data collected by CARABAS, a UWB low frequency SAR system.
This paper describes a Fast Factorized Back-Projection (FFBP) formulation that includes a fully integrated autofocus algorithm, i.e. the Factorized Geometrical Autofocus (FGA) algorithm. The base-two factorization is executed in a horizontal plane, using a Merging (M) and a Range History Preserving (RHP) transform. Six parameters are adopted for each sub-aperture pair, i.e. to establish the geometry stage-by-stage via triangles in 3-dimensional space. If the parameters are derived from navigation data, the algorithm is used as a conventional processing chain. If the parameters on the other hand are varied from a certain factorization step and forward, the algorithm is used as a joint image formation and autofocus strategy. By regulating the geometry at multiple resolution levels, challenging defocusing effects, e.g. residual space-variant Range Cell Migration (RCM), can be corrected. The new formulation also serves another important purpose, i.e. as a parameter characterization scheme. By using the FGA algorithm and its inverse, relations between two arbitrary geometries can be studied, in consequence, this makes it feasible to analyze how errors in navigation data, and topography, affect image focus. The versatility of the factorization procedure is demonstrated successfully on simulated Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. This is achieved by introducing different GPS/IMU errors and Focus Target Plane (FTP) deviations prior to processing. The characterization scheme is then employed to evaluate the sensitivity, to determine at what step the autofocus function should be activated, and to decide the number of necessary parameters at each step. Resulting FGA images are also compared to a reference image (processed without errors and autofocus) and to a defocused image (processed without autofocus), i.e. to validate the novel approach further.