The use of camouflage is widespread in the biological domain, and has also been used extensively by armed forces around the world in order to make visual detection and classification of objects of military interest more difficult. The recent advent of ever more autonomous military agents raises the questions of whether camouflage can have a similar effect on autonomous agents as it has on human agents, and if so, what kind of camouflage will be effective against such adversaries. In previous works, we have shown that image classifiers based on deep neural networks can be confused by patterns generated by generative adversarial networks (GANs). Specifically, we trained a classifier to distinguish between two ship types, military and civilian. We then used a GAN to generate patterns that, when overlaid on parts of military vessels (frigates), made the classifier confuse the modified frigates with civilian vessels. We termed such patterns "adversarial camouflage" (AC) since these patterns effectively camouflage the frigates with respect to the classifier. The type of adversarial attack described in our previous work is a so-called white box attack. This term describes adversarial attacks that are devised given full knowledge of the classifier under attack. This is as opposed to black box attacks, which describe attacks on unknown classifiers. In our context, the ultimate goal is to design a GAN that is capable of black box attacks, in other words: a GAN that will generate AC that has effect across a wide range of neural network classifiers. In the current work, we study techniques to improve the robustness of our GAN-based approach by investigating whether a GAN can be trained to fool a selection of several neural network-based classifiers, or reduce the confidence of the classifications to a degree which makes them unreliable. Our results indicate that it is indeed possible to weaken a wider range of neural network classifiers by training the generator on several classifiers.
Different types of imaging sensors are frequently employed for detection, tracking and classification (DTC) of naval vessels. A number of countermeasure techniques are currently employed against such sensors, and with the advent of ever more sensitive imaging sensors and sophisticated image analysis software, the question becomes what to do in order to render DTC as hard as possible. In recent years, progress in deep learning, has resulted in algorithms for image analysis that often rival human beings in performance. One approach to fool such strategies is the use of adversarial camouflage (AC). Here, the appearance of the vessel we wish to protect is structured in such a way that it confuses the software analyzing the images of the vessel. In our previous work, we added patches of AC to images of frigates. The paches were placed on the hull and/or superstructure of the vessels. The results showed that these patches were highly effective, tricking a previously trained discriminator into classifying the frigates as civilian. In this work we study the robustness and generality of such patches. The patches have been degraded in various ways, and the resulting images fed to the discriminator. As expected, the more the patches are degraded, the harder it becomes to fool the discriminator. Furthermore, we have trained new patch generators, designed to create patches that will withstand such degradations. Our initial results indicate that the robustness of AC patches may be increased by adding degrading flters in the training of the patch generator.
A test system with four cameras in the infrared and visual spectra is under development at FFI (The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment). The system may be mounted on a jet aircraft or may be used in a land-based version. It can be used for image acquisition or for testing of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. The sensors on board generate large amounts of data, and the scene may be rather cluttered or include anomalies (e.g. sun glare). This means we need algorithms which are robust, fast, able to handle complex scenes, and data from up to four sensors simultaneously. Typically, estimates of mean and covariance are needed for the processing. However, the common maximum likelihood (ML) estimates are in general too sensitive towards outliers. Algorithms based on order statistics are known to be robust and reliable. However, they are computationally very heavy. But approximations to order statistics do exist. Median of medians is one example. This is a technique where an approximation of the median of a sequence is found by first dividing the sequence in subsequences, and then calculating median (of medians) recursively. This technique can be applied for estimating the mean as well as the standard deviation. In this paper we extend this method for estimating the covariance matrix and the mean vector, and discuss the strategy with respect to robustness and computational efficiency. Applications for use in image processing and pattern recognition are given.
The use of different types of camouflage is a longstanding technique employed by armed forces in order to avoid detection, classification or tracking of objects of military interest. Typically, the use of such camouflage is intended to fool human observers. However, in future battle theaters one must expect to face weapons that are ’artificially intelligent’ in some way, and the question then arises as to whether the same types of camouflage will be effective against such weapons. An equally important question is if it is possible to design camouflage in order to specifically confuse ’artificially intelligent’ adversaries and what such camouflage might look like. It is this latter question that is the object of the study reported here. In particular, we consider whether carefully designed patterns of camouflage will have a detrimental effect on the performance of neural networks trained to distinguish among different ship classes. We train a neural network to distinguish between different types of military and civilian vessels and specifically require the network to determine whether the vessel is military or civilian. We then use this network to train a second network, a generative adversarial network, that will generate patterns to overlay on parts of the vessels in such a way as to thwart the performance of the first network. We show that such adversarial camouflage is very effective in confusing the original classification network.
Infrared (IR) imagery is frequently used in security/surveillance and military image processing applications. In this article we will consider the problem of outlining military naval vessels in such images. Obtaining these outlines is important for a number of applications, for instance in vessel classification.
Detecting this outline is basically a very complex image segmentation task. We will use a special neural network for this purpose. Neural networks have recently shown great promise in a wide range of image processing applications, image segmentation is no exception in this regard. The main drawback when using neural networks for this purpose is the need for substantial amounts of data in order to train the networks. This problem is of particular concern for our application due to the difficulty in obtaining IR images of military vessels.
In order to alleviate this problem we have experimented with using alternatives to true IR images for the training of the neural networks. Although such data in no way can capture the exact nature of real IR images, they do capture the nature of IR images to a degree where they contribute substantially to the training and final performance of the neural network.
A test system with four cameras in the infrared and visual spectra is under development at FFI (The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment). The system can be mounted on a high speed jet aircraft, but may also be used in a land-based version. It can be used for image acquisition as well as for development and test of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. The sensors on board generate large amounts of data, and the scene may be rather cluttered or include anomalies (e.g. sun glare). This means we need image processing and pattern recognition algorithms which are robust, fast (real-time), and able to handle complex scenes. Algorithms based on order statistics are known to be robust and reliable. However, they are in general computationally heavy, and thus often unsuitable for real time applications. But approximations to order statistics do exist. Median of medians is one example. This is a technique where an approximation of the median of a sequence is found by first dividing the sequence in subsequences, and then calculating median (of medians) recursively. The algorithm is very efficient, the processing time is of order O(n). By utilizing such techniques for estimating image statistics, the computational challenge can be overcome. In this paper we present strategies for how approximations to order statistics can be applied for developing robust and fast algorithms for image processing, especially visualization and segmentation.
A research platform with four cameras in the infrared and visible spectral domains is under development at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI). The platform will be mounted on a high-speed jet aircraft and will primarily be used for image acquisition and for development and test of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. The sensors on board produce large amounts of data, the algorithms can be computationally intensive and the data processing is complex. This puts great demands on the system architecture; it has to run in real-time and at the same time be suitable for algorithm development. In this paper we present an architecture for ATR systems that is designed to be exible, generic and efficient.
The architecture is module based so that certain parts, e.g. specific ATR algorithms, can be exchanged without affecting the rest of the system. The modules are generic and can be used in various ATR system configurations. A software framework in C++ that handles large data ows in non-linear pipelines is used for implementation. The framework exploits several levels of parallelism and lets the hardware processing capacity be fully utilised. The ATR system is under development and has reached a first level that can be used for segmentation algorithm development and testing. The implemented system consists of several modules, and although their content is still limited, the segmentation module includes two different segmentation algorithms that can be easily exchanged. We demonstrate the system by applying the two segmentation algorithms to infrared images from sea trial recordings.
The work presented in this paper is based on a dataset recorded with an airborne sensor. It comprises targets like M-60,
M-47, M-113, bridge layers, tank retrievers, and trucks in various types of scenes.
The background-object segmentation consists of first estimating the ground level everywhere in the scene, and then for
each sample simply subtracting the measured height and ground level height. No assumptions concerning flat terrain etc.
Samples with height above ground level higher than a certain threshold are clustered by utilizing a straightforward
agglomerative clustering algorithm. Around each cluster the bounding box with minimum volume is determined. Based
on these bounding boxes, too small as well as too large clusters can easily be removed.
However, vehicle-sized clutter will not be removed. Clutter detection is based on estimating the normal vector for a
plane approximation around each sample. This approach is based on the fact that the surface normals of a vehicle is more
“modulo 90°” distributed than clutter.
The aim of the classification has been to classify main battle tanks (MBTs) Two types of algorithms have been studied,
one based on Dempster Shafer fusion theory, and one model based.
Our dataset comprises clusters of 269 vehicles (among them 131 MBTs), and 253 clutter objects (i.e. in practice vehiclesized
bushes). The experiments we have carried out show that the segmentation extracts all vehicles, the clutter detection
removes 90% of the clutter, and the classification finds more than 95% of the MBTs as well as removes half of the
Architecture and technology of imaging intrusion detection sensor OPAK are presented. Applications and desired features for IDS and UGS are compared. Started developments of OPAK towards an unattended ground sensor system are described.