It has been widely proven in literature that most optical microscopy techniques can greatly benefit from the application of adaptive optics correction of phase aberrations through an adaptive optical element, such as a deformable mirror or a spatial light modulator. However, adaptive optics is not yet widely adopted in the life sciences community, mostly due to the lack of adaptive commercial microscopy systems, and the inherent technical difficulty in modifying an existing microscopy setup to integrate an adaptive element, both on the software and hardware sides. We present a plug-and-play adaptive optics module for generic optical microscopes, based on a prototype refractive 18 actuators adaptive optical element, which can be inserted in any microscope between the objective and the microscope body. Correction is performed in a sensorless fashion, optimizing image quality metrics of the image presented to the user on screen. The results presented show how an end-user oriented commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica SP5) can be upgraded with adaptive optics with minor hardware modifications, and no changes to the microscope control software.
The use of adaptive lenses instead of deformable mirrors can simplify the implementation of an adaptive optics system. The recently introduced Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens (MAL) can be used in closed loop with a wavefront sensor to correct for time-variant wavefront aberrations. The MAL can guarantee a level of correction and a response time similar to the ones obtained with deformable mirrors. The adaptive lens is based on the use of piezoelectric actuators and, without any obstruction or electrodes in the clear aperture, can guarantee a fast response time, less than ~10ms. Our tests show that the MAL can be used both in combination with a wavefront sensor in a “classical” adaptive optics closed loop, or in a wavefront sensorless configuration. The latter has allowed us to design more compact and simple imaging systems for different microscopy platforms. We will show that the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens has been successfully used for in-vivo OCT ophthalmic imaging in both mice and humans, as well as confocal and two photon microscopy. We tested and compared different optimization strategies such as coordinate search and the DONE algorithm. The results suggest that the MAL optimization can correct for eye aberrations with a pupil of 5mm or sample induced aberrations in microscopy.
In this manuscript, we present a lens setup for large defocus and astigmatism correction. A deformable defocus lens and two rotational cylindrical lenses are used to control the defocus and astigmatism. The setup is calibrated using a simple model that allows the calculation of the lens inputs so that a desired defocus and astigmatism are actuated on the eye. The setup is tested by determining the feedforward prediction error, imaging a resolution target, and removing introduced aberrations.