The strategic objective of the European Union to provide broadband access for all of its citizens and also to develop
technologies suitable for worldwide use leads to a number of projects aiming on different stages of the technological evolution of next generation fibre-to-the-X access networks. In order to catch up the revenue gap novel technologies are required that offer reduced CAPEX and OPEX. This can be obtained by a converged metro and access network with enhanced reach and splitting factor.
Within the project MUSE for the first time a full-functional prototype of a future 10/2.5Gbit/s XL-PON (eXtra Large
Passive Optical Network) system was realized and tested. The prototype systems consists of OLT, ONT, and an
intermediate stage, called Metro Access Point (MAP) which contains optical amplifiers and a burst-mode transponder
for 2.5Gbit/s. The XL-PON prototype fulfils all major requirements of a future next-generation PON<sup>1</sup>. The PIEMAN project which started a year later researches the physical layer of a symmetrical 10 Gbit/s, 32 wavelength, 100 km reach and 512 way split access network<sup>2</sup> and shows very promising results until today.
Both PIEMAN and XL-PON are intermediate steps towards the goal of a fully reconfigurable, fully tuneable combined WDM and TDM access networks which offers a multitude of services on a multitude of wavelength which are routed and activated as the demand requires.
This paper presents the Photonic Integrated Extended Metro and Access Network (PIEMAN), an access network which integrates the optical access and metro parts of a network, thereby simplyfying the network and reducing cost. Key features are symmetrical downstream and upstream data rates of 10 Gbit/s, an all optical reach of 100 km, 32 wavelengths and a 512 fold split per wavelength.
Gigabit or Ethernet PON access FFTx networks are being deployed in a number of countries. A number of different concepts and architectures have been used. Architecture selection criteria included the targeted up- and downstream bitrate, the geographical structure of the target area, buried or overhead cabling, planned services and QoS aspects, all under the constraints of the technological state of the art and the economical data. This paper will discuss some of the aspects of different modern PON architectures. There are three basic enhancements in the PON performance: higher bit rates for the end user in up- and downstream direction, higher splitting factors and higher reach. All of the enhancements can be arbitrarily combined, eventually introducing the need for architectural or technological changes.
Optical data transmission has undergone a tremendous evolution. Starting with unrepeated point-to-point transmission in the 80s the inventions of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) have let to an explosion of system capacity as well as of system reach. After the steep downturn of recent years network operators have now regained the strength to upgrade their networks and to implement new services. This paper will review current and upcoming technologies in the long haul (LH) and ultra long haul (ULH) data transmission. It will further discuss the future evolution of transparent optical networks towards dynamically routed meshed optical networks with respect to operator’s technical operational and economical requirements. Upgradeability turns out as a key issue as it on the one hand side facilitates low front investments for network providers and on the other hand side enables organic and flexible network growth.
An overview of a wide choice of current technologies and components suitable for the use of 160 Gbit/s optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM) systems is given. A selection of the presented components were used to implement a 160 Gbit/s network. In a field trial on BT’s network we demonstrated transmission over 550 km and a fully operating OTDM network including a time domain add-drop multiplexer (TD-OADM) at a data rate of 160 Gbit/s at a single wavelength and a tributary data rate of 10 Gbit/s.