Optical data storage has been widely used in certain consumer applications owing to its passive and robust nature, but has failed to keep with larger industry data storage needs due to the lack of capacity. Many alternatives have been proposed and developed, such as 3D data storage using two-photon absorption that require complex and dangerous laser systems to localize the bits. In this paper, we present a method for localizing bits using a CW 405nm laser diode, in a multilayered polymer film. Data is stored by photobleaching a fluorescent dye, and the response of the material is nonlinear, despite the CW laser and absorption in the visible region. This is achieved using sub-μs pulses from the laser initiating a photothermal effect. This writing method, along with the inexpensive roll-to-roll method for making the disc, will allow for terabyte-scale optical discs using conventional commercial optics and lasers.
Understanding transparent conductive oxide (TCO) degradation is critical to improving stability and lifetime of both organic and inorganic thin lm PV modules, which utilize TCOs, like indium tin oxide (ITO), aluminumdoped zinc oxide (AZO) and uorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as electrodes. These TCOs must retain their long-term functionality in diverse outdoor environments. In addition to bulk material degradation, interfacial degradation, a frequent avenue for failure in PV systems, is promoted by exposure to environmental stressors such as irradiance, heat and humidity. ITO, AZO and FTO samples in an open-faced con guration were exposed to damp heat and ASTM G154 for up to 1000 hours. The e ect of exposure on electrical and optical properties and surface energies of cleaned samples was measured. Yellowness, haze, water contact angle and resistivity of the di erent materials trended di erently with exposure time and type, indicating the activation of distinct degradation mechanisms. An encapsulated con guration study was conducted on ITO and AZO, exposing samples to the above accelerated exposures and two outdoor exposures (1x suns and 5x suns on a dual axis trackers), with and without PEDOT:PSS layers. PEDOT:PSS increases the yellowness and haze of ITO and AZO, but does not accelerate the increase in resistivity, suggesting that the optical and electrical degradation mechanisms are not coupled. Additionally, the hazing/roughening mechanism of PEDOT:PSS on AZO appears to be photo-sensitive; 5x outdoor exposure samples demonstrated distinctly higher haze than damp heat exposed samples.