There are several mechanisms which have been proposed for the existence of colossal dielectric constant in the class of perovskite calcium copper titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12 or CCTO) materials. Researches indicate that existence of twinning parallel to (100) (001) and (010) planes causes planar defects and causes changes in local electronic structure. This change can cause insulating barriers locally which contribute to the large dielectric values irrespective of processing. The combination of insulating barriers, defects and displacements caused by twinning have been attributed to the generation of large dielectric constant in CCTO. To examine some of these arguments some researchers replaced Ca with other elements and evaluated this concept. In this study we present the synthesis and characterization of Ga2/3Cu3Ti4O12-xNx (GCTON) material. This provides both distortion due to atomic size difference and defects due to insertion of nitrogen. The morphology of the compound was determined to show that processing has tremendous effect on the dielectric values. The resistivity of GCTON was several order higher than CCTO and dielectric constant was higher than 10,000.
In recent years, there is an increasing interest in noninvasive treatments for neurological disorders like Alzheimer and Depression. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is one of the most effective methods used for this purpose. The performance of TMS highly depends on the coils used for the generation of magnetic field and induced electric field particularly their designs affecting depth and focality tradeoff characteristics. Among a variety of proposed and used TMS coil designs, circular coils are commonly used both in research and medical and clinical applications. In current study, we focus on changing the outer and inner sizes (diameter) and winding turns of ring coils and try to reach deeper brain regions without significant field strength decay. The induced electric field and the decay rate of the generated field with depth were studied with finite element method calculations. The results of the performed simulations indicate that larger diameter coils have a larger equivalent field emission aperture and produce larger footprint of induced electric field initially. However, their emission solid angles are smaller and, as a result, the field divergence or the decay rates of the generated field with depth are smaller as well, which give them a good potential to perform better for deep brain stimulation compared with that of smaller coil.