We present an instantaneous phase mapping deflectometry (PMD) system in the context of measuring a continuous surface deformable mirror (DM). Deflectometry has a high dynamic range, enabling the full range of surfaces generated by the DM to be measured. The recent development of an instantaneous PMD system leverages the simple setup of the PMD system to measure dynamic objects with accuracy similar to an interferometer. To demonstrate the capabilities of this technology, we perform a linearity measurement of the actuator motion in a continuous surface DM, which is critical for closed loop control in adaptive optics applications. We measure the entire set of actuators across the DM as they traverse their full range of motion with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, thereby obtaining the influence function. Given the influence function of each actuator, the DM can produce specific Zernike terms on its surface. We then measure the linearity of the Zernike modes available in the DM software using the instantaneous PMD system. By obtaining the relationship between modes, we can more accurately generate surface profiles composed of Zernike terms. This ability is useful for other dynamic freeform metrology applications that utilize the DM as a null component.
A segmented mirror is one of the most promising solutions to build an extremely large aperture telescope to reveal the secrets of the universe. In this manuscript, we present a simultaneous angle alignment method for segmented mirrors. By taking the displayed sinusoidal pattern reflecting off the mirrors, the tip-tilt angles are measured with 0.8 μrad resolution for a flat mirror. Due to the efficient calculation using Fourier analysis, the total measurement time for seven flat mirrors is 0.07 s. In addition, a multiplexed sinusoidal pattern is adapted to resolve the intrinsic 2π ambiguity problem in a sinusoidal signal. The presented method can measure any number of segmented mirrors provided that the camera’s field of view can cover them all simultaneously.
Dynamic metrology holds the key to overcoming several challenging limitations of conventional optical metrology, especially with regards to precision freeform optical elements. We present two dynamic metrology systems: 1) adaptive interferometric null testing; and 2) instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry, along with an overview of a gradient data processing and surface reconstruction technique. The adaptive null testing method, utilizing a deformable mirror, adopts a stochastic parallel gradient descent search algorithm in order to dynamically create a null testing condition for unknown freeform optics. The single-shot deflectometry system implemented on an iPhone uses a multiplexed display pattern to enable dynamic measurements of time-varying optical components or optics in vibration. Experimental data, measurement accuracy / precision, and data processing algorithms are discussed.