CZ SMT AG produced large off-axis EUV mirrors as they are used e.g. in ASML's alpha demo tools, the predecessor for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) production tools by ASML. The coating development and a large part of the actual coatings were done by the FOM-Institute. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) operates an EUV reflectometry facility at the electron storage ring BESSY II for at-wavelength metrology of full-size EUVL optics with a weight of up to 50 kg and a diameter of 550 mm. Critical issues for EUVL mirrors are the high reflectivity close to the theoretical limit, the matching of the period to the operating wavelength of the stepper (13.5 nm) and the imaging properties of the EUV optics. The full multilayer stack needs to be controlled laterally to such extend that the initial sub-nanometre surface figure of the substrate is preserved. The so-called added figure error should not exceed 100 pm in order to ensure faultless imaging at 13.5 nm wavelength. Here, we discuss representative results obtained at large off-axis EUV mirrors. We especially discuss the challenges of measurements at higher local angles of incidence according to the optical design and the accuracy needed in sample alignment for measurement of the coating profiles. PTB has shown excellent reproducibility for measurements of the near normal incidence reflectance of flat homogeneous mirrors over several years. For large off-axis EUV mirrors, measurements have to be done at angles significantly off normal, which dramatically increases the influence of angular alignment errors of the sample on the measured peak wavelength. Furthermore, according to the optical design, these optics have gradients of the coating thickness which require exact knowledge of the measurement position in the mirror coordinates. Extensive studies were done to estimate and validate the uncertainties connected to the sample alignment. Our results clearly show that it is possible to meet and verify the tight specifications for the lateral coating profiles of EUV multilayer mirrors. The non-correctable added figure error is significantly better than required and the overall reflectance of the coatings with a special protective capping layer is 65%.
The development of EUV lithography is critically based on the availability of suitable metrological equipment. To meet the industry's requirements, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) operates an EUV reflectometry facility at the electron storage ring BESSY II. It is designed for at-wavelength metrology of full-sized EUVL optics with a maximum weight of 50 kg and a diameter of up to 550 mm. A micro-reflectometry station was installed for reflectometry with high spatial resolution for, e.g., structured masks. A photon beam size of 10 μm FWHM has presently been achieved. To meet the increasing demands of metrology for future lithography production tools, the measurement uncertainty was permanently reduced. For peak reflectance, a total uncertainty of 0.10 % is achieved with a reproducibility of 0.05 %. The uncertainty of 2 pm in the center wavelength is given mainly by the uncertainty for the reference wavelength of the Kr 3d5/2-5p resonance. A long-term reproducibility of 0.8 pm has been demonstrated over a period of about 4 years. We have recently demonstrated repeatability below 0.06 pm. This good repeatability is important for the determination of the coating-thickness gradient in alpha-tool optics. We present a long-term series of measurements at a set of EUV mirrors and discuss our recent results in improving wavelength reproducibility.