Near-ultraviolet (NUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have found many applications in the areas such as UV curing, bio-chemical sensors etc. However, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of NUV-LEDs show relatively lower value than blue LEDs. In previous research, asymmetric triangular MQWs with gallium face-oriented inclination in the blue wavelength band are demonstrated to have higher emission efficiency and lower efficiency droop. In this study, we surprisingly found different trend in NUV-LEDs. Compared to blue LEDs, NUV-LEDs tend to have shallower quantum wells and less ability to localize holes. In the simulation results, holes are more confined within nitrogen face-oriented inclination than that in MQWs with gallium face-oriented inclination and the IQE are improved about 10%.
The key issue for light emission strength of GaN-based LEDs is the high defect density and strain in MQWs causing the electric polarization fields. In this work, we construct 3D confocal microspectroscopy to clarify strain distribution and the relationship between photoluminescence (PL) intensity and pattern sapphire substrate (PSS). From 3D construction of E2high Raman and PL mapping, the dislocation in MQW can be traced to the cone tip of PSS and the difference in E2high Raman mapping between substrate and surface is also measured. The ability to measure strain change in 3D structure nondestructively can be applied to explore many structural problems of GaN-based optoelectronic devices.
Ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer has been demonstrated effective to significantly improve crystal quality and electrical properties of GaN epitaxy layers for GaN based Light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this report, we have successfully reduced X-ray (102) FWHM from 240 to 110 arcsec, and (002) FWHM from 230 to 101 arcsec. In addition, reverse-bias voltage (Vr) increased around 20% with the sputtered AlN nucleation layer. Furthermore, output power of LEDs grown on sputtered AlN nucleation layer can be improved around 4.0% compared with LEDs which is with conventional GaN nucleation layer on pattern sapphire substrate (PSS).
We invesstagated the relationship between the emission efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and the V-shape pits (V-pits) forming along the threading dislocation (TD). The thinner InGaN/GaN MQWs on the side walls around V-pits would create higher local energy barriers, which can resist the carriers trapped into the non-radiative recombination centres within TDs. By inserting different InGaN/GaN superlattice (SLS) layers below the MQWs, sizes of V-pits could be properly controlled. It was found that the V-pit size on InGaN MQWs increased with increasing SLS layers, which could decrease energy barriers. On the contrary, the shorter distance between the TD center and V-pit boundary would increase the carrier capturing capability of TDs in smaller V-pits. By properly controlling the V-shape defect formation, the best internal quantum efficiency of about 70%f was found in the MQWs with underlying 15 periods SLS layers.