Magnonics research, i.e. the manipulation of spin waves for information processing, is a topic of intense research interest in the past years. FMR, BLS and MOKE measurements lead to tremendous success and advancement of the field. However, these methods are limited in their spatial resolution. X-ray microscopy opens up a way to push to spatial resolutions below 100 nm. Here, we discuss the methodology of STXM for pump-probe data acquisition with single photon counting and arbitrary excitation patterns. Furthermore, we showcase these capabilities using two magnonic crystals as examples: an antidot lattice and a Fibonacci quasicrystal.
Magnetic sensing and logic devices based on the motion of magnetic domain walls rely on the precise and deterministic control of the position and the velocity of individual magnetic domain walls. Varying domain wall velocities have been predicted to result from intrinsic effects such as oscillating domain wall spin structure transformations and extrinsic pinning due to imperfections. We use direct dynamic imaging of the nanoscale spin structure to directly check these predictions. We find a new regime of oscillating domain wall motion even below the Walker breakdown correlated with periodic spin structure changes and we show that the extrinsic pinning from defects in the nanowire only affects slow domain walls.
The magnetic vortex is the simplest, non-trivial ground state configuration of micron and sub-micron sized soft magnetic
thin film platelets and therefore an interesting subject for the study of micro magnetism. Essential progress in the understanding of nonlinear vortex dynamics was achieved when low-field core toggling was discovered by excitation of the
gyrotropic eigenmode at sub-GHz frequencies. At frequencies more than an order of magnitude higher vortex state
structures possess spin wave eigenmodes arising from the magneto-static interaction. We demonstrated, experimentally
and by micromagnetic simulations, that the unidirectional vortex core reversal process also occurs when azimuthal spin
wave modes are excited in the multi-GHz frequency range. This finding highlights the importance of spin wave – vortex
interaction and boosts vortex core reversal to much higher frequencies, which may offer new routes for GHz spintronics
Electromigration in sub-micron conductors of Cu and CuAl was studied by 1/f noise measurements for the first time. 1/f noise can serve as a very sensitive indicator for electromigration damage: The 1/f noise level is increased by up to two orders of magnitude whereas the resistance of the damaged interconnects is enhanced by less than a factor of two only. The most striking advantage of the 1/f noise measurement technique compared to the methods frequently used at present for electromigration studies (e.g., the Median Time of Failure, MTF technique) is that it is possible to determine the distribution of the activation energies of the processes involved from a single sample at progressive electromigration damaging. In Cu interconnects a strong increase in the number of mobile defects is observed during electromigration damaging whereas the shape of the distribution of the activation energies (maximum between 0.8 and 0.95 eV) does not change much, except shortly before the failure of the interconnect lines where a shift to higher activation energies (maximum: 1.05 eV) is measured. Significantly higher activation energies observed in undamaged and electromigration damaged CuAl0.5wt% interconnects indicate an advanced resistance of CuAl alloys to electromigration when compared to pure Cu lines.