POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment for B-mode detection. The PB-2 receiver has a large focal plane and aperture that consists of 7588 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers at 250 mK. The receiver consists of the optical cryostat housing reimaging lenses and infrared filters, and the detector cryostat housing TES bolometers. The large focal plane places substantial requirements on the thermal design of the optical elements at the 4K, 50K, and 300K stages. Infrared filters and lenses inside the optical cryostat are made of alumina for this purpose. We measure basic properties of alumina, such as the index of refraction, loss tangent and thermal conductivity. All results meet our requirements. We also optically characterize filters and lenses made of alumina. Finally, we perform a cooling test of the entire optical cryostat. All measured temperature values satisfy our requirements. In particular, the temperature rise between the center and edge of the alumina infrared filter at 50 K is only 2:0 ± 1:4 K. Based on the measurements, we estimate the incident power to each thermal stage.
The Simons Array is an expansion of the POLARBEAR cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment currently observing from the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. This expansion will create an array of three 3.5m telescopes each coupled to a multichroic bolometric receiver. The Simons Array will have the sensitivity to produce a ≥ 5σ detection of inationary gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≥ 0:01, detect the known minimum 58 meV sum of the neutrino masses with 3σ confidence when combined with a next-generation baryon acoustic oscillation measurement, and make a lensing map of large-scale structure over the 80% of the sky available from its Chilean site. These goals require high sensitivity and the ability to extract the CMB signal from contaminating astrophysical foregrounds; these requirements are met by coupling the three high-throughput telescopes to novel multichroic lenslet-coupled pixels each measuring CMB photons in both linear polarization states over multiple spectral bands. We present the status of this instrument already under construction, and an analysis of its capabilities.
For the next generation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments, kilopixel arrays of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers are necessary to achieve the required sensitivity and their science goals. We are developing read-out electronics for POLARBEAR-2 CMB experiment, which multiplexes 32-TES bolometers through a single superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID). To increase both the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics and the multiplexing factor, we are modifying cold wiring and developing LC filters, and a low-inductance superconducting cable. Using these components, we will show frequency domain multiplexing up to 3 MHz.
We present the mission design of LiteBIRD, a next generation satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and inflation from cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) detection. The science goal of LiteBIRD is to measure the CMB polarization with the sensitivity of δr = 0:001, and this allows testing the major single-field slow-roll inflation models experimentally. The LiteBIRD instrumental design is purely driven to achieve this goal. At the earlier stage of the mission design, several key instrumental specifications, e.g. observing band, optical system, scan strategy, and orbit, need to be defined in order to process the rest of the detailed design. We have gone through the feasibility studies for these items in order to understand the tradeoffs between the requirements from the science goal and the compatibilities with a satellite bus system. We describe the overview of LiteBIRD and discuss the tradeoffs among the choices of scientific instrumental specifications and strategies. The first round of feasibility studies will be completed by the end of year 2014 to be ready for the mission definition review and the target launch date is in early 2020s.
POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background, scheduled to deploy in 2015. It will feature a large focal plane, cooled to 250 milliKelvin, with 7,588 polarization-sensitive antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, read-out with frequency domain multiplexing with 32 bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier. We will present results from testing and characterization of new readout components, integrating these components into a scaled-down readout system for validation of the design and technology.
POLARBEAR-2 is a ground based cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation experiment observing from Atacama, Chile. The science goals of POLARBEAR-2 are to measure the CMB polarization signals originating from the inflationary gravity-wave background and weak gravitational lensing. In order to achieve these science goals, POLARBEAR-2 employs 7588 polarization sensitive transition edge sensor bolometers at observing fre quencies of 95 and 150 GHz with 5.5 and 3.5 arcmin beam width, respectively. The telescope is the off-axis Gregorian, Huan Tran Telescope, on which the POLARBEAR-1 receiver is currently mounted. The polarimetry is based on modulation of the polarized signal using a rotating half-wave plate and the rotation of the sky. We present the developments of the optical and polarimeter designs including the cryogenically cooled refractive optics that achieve the overall 4 degrees field-of-view, the thermal filter design, the broadband anti-reflection coating, and the rotating half-wave plate.
The POLARBEAR Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization experiment is currently observing from the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. It will characterize the expected B-mode polarization due to gravitational lensing of the CMB, and search for the possible B-mode signature of inflationary gravitational waves. Its 250 mK focal plane detector array consists of 1,274 polarization-sensitive antenna-coupled bolometers, each with an associated lithographed band-defining filter. Each detector’s planar antenna structure is coupled to the telescope’s optical system through a contacting dielectric lenslet, an architecture unique in current CMB experiments. We present the initial characterization of this focal plane.
We present the design and characterization of the POLARBEAR experiment. POLARBEAR will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales ranging from the experiment’s 3.5’ beam size to several degrees. The experiment utilizes a unique focal plane of 1,274 antenna-coupled, polarization sensitive TES bolometers cooled to 250 milliKelvin. Employing this focal plane along with stringent control over systematic errors, POLARBEAR has the sensitivity to detect the expected small scale B-mode signal due to gravitational lensing and search for the large scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. POLARBEAR was assembled for an engineering run in the Inyo Mountains of California in 2010 and was deployed in late 2011 to the Atacama Desert in Chile. An overview of the instrument is presented along with characterization results from observations in Chile.
POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment observing at Atacama plateau in Chile. PB-2 is designed to improve the sensitivity to measure the CMB B-mode polarization by upgrading the current POLARBEAR-1 receiver that is currently mounted on the Huan Tran telescope. The improvements in PB-2 include, i) the dual band observations at 95 GHz and 150 GHz in each pixel using an sinuous antenna, ii) the increase of the total number of detectors, 7588 Al-Ti bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, iii) the bath temperature of bolometers at 100mK in the second phase of observation (300mK in the first phase.) With the expected sensitivity of 5.7 μK √ s, PB-2 is sensitive to a tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, of 0.01 at 95% confidence level (CL) and constrains the sum of neutrino masses as 90meV by PB-2 alone and 40meV by combining PB-2 and Planck at 68% CL. We schedule to deploy in 2014.
LiteBIRD [Lite (Light) satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background
Radiation Detection] is a small satellite to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB)
radiation over the full sky at large angular scales with unprecedented precision. Cosmological inflation, which
is the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational
waves were created during the inflationary era. Measurements of polarization of the CMB radiation are known as
the best probe to detect the primordial gravitational waves. The LiteBIRD working group is authorized by the
Japanese Steering Committee for Space Science (SCSS) and is supported by JAXA. It has more than 50 members
from Japan, USA and Canada. The scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to test all the representative inflation models that satisfy single-field slow-roll conditions and lie in the large-field regime. To this end, the requirement
on the precision of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, at LiteBIRD is equal to or less than 0.001. Our baseline design
adopts an array of multi-chroic superconducting polarimeters that are read out with high multiplexing factors in
the frequency domain for a compact focal plane. The required sensitivity of 1.8μKarcmin is achieved with 2000
TES bolometers at 100mK. The cryogenic system is based on the Stirling/JT technology developed for SPICA,
and the continuous ADR system shares the design with future X-ray satellites.