Immersion lithography has already demonstrated superior performance for next generation semiconductor manufacturing, while some challenges with contact immersion fluids and resist still
remain. There are many interactions to be considered with regards to the solid and liquid interface. Resist elusion in particular requires very careful attention since the impact on the lens and fluid supply system in exposure tool could pose a significant risk at the manufacturing stage. TOK developed a screening procedure to detect resist elution of ion species down to ppb levels during non and post exposure steps. It was found that the PAG cation elution is affected by molecular weight and structure while the PAG anion elution was dependent on the molecular structure and mobility. In this paper, lithographic performance is also discussed with the low elution type resist.